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Fiber optic network installation

Fiber optic network installation

The netwogk installs conduit, which Fber tubing Hydrating serums to PVC piping designed Raspberry allergy information protect the fiber Herbal inflammation reducers cable networkk damage underground. Once installatio cabling exits a building, even for short links for example in a campus or metropolitan network, requirements for fiber and cable types change. FTTH Optical Network Unit Electronics One telco application is different, FTTH fiber to the home. One thing to remember — every installation will be unique. Most of these systems are designed to be used over distances and speeds that preclude anything but SM fiber.

Fiber optic network installation -

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Site Map. Cookie Settings. CenturyLink in Your Area. Check continuity and attenuation. Check the continuity and attenuation of the cable before each operation.

Such marking will alert electricians to the nature of the cable. Make As-Built Data logs. Make as-built data logs on all cables. Keep these data available to those who will perform maintenance and troubleshooting.

These data logs should include both insertion loss measurement and OTDR measurements. Safety precaution — no food, drink or smoke. Do not eat, drink, or smoke in any area in which bare glass fiber is created. Bare glass fibers can cause splinters which are very difficult to find and remove.

Safety precaution — do not look into fiber without checking status. Never look into a fiber, cable, or connector unless you know for sure that there is no laser light in the fiber. For extensive work with fiber optics, safety glasses with IR filter is recommended. Leave service loops.

Leave cable and fiber service loops everywhere. You will regret not doing so. Service loops allow you to pull excess cable or fiber into a location where you have experienced a problem. It is much cheaper to pull in a service loop than to replace an entire run of fiber cable.

Segregate or isolate the work area. Rope off or otherwise isolate the area of cable installation to prevent access to unauthorized or untrained personnel. This will avoid safety problems such as fiber splinters and unintentional abuse. For direct burial installations, the cable should lie flat in a trench, free of any large stones or boulders that may deform the cable.

Do not allow vehicles to drive over a cable. Ensure that the proper cable length has been installed before cutting off excess cable. Avoid placing cable reels on their sides or subjecting them to shock from dropping.

Fiber optic cables should be placed in their own dedicated ducts or trays. Do not mix copper cable and fiber cable in the same ducts or trays. After the fiber optic cable is installed into a duct or innerduct, end plugs should be installed to provide an effective water seal.

The ducts and innerducts should be kept free of debris and maintained watertight at all times. Ducts and innerducts should be sized to meet present and future cable installation requirements. The fiber pulling rope or tape should be sequentially marked foot or meter for easy identification of distance.

The pulling tape should have a rating for greater than maximum anticipated pulling tension. Before the start of any cable pull, all ducts and cable vaults should be carefully inspected for damage or deterioration, and to address any safety concerns. The electric spark generated by a fusion splicer can cause an explosion when flammable gases are present.

Fusion splices should therefore not be used in vaults. To minimize cable tensions, reel vault locations should be set near the sharpest bend locations. Pulling and reel locations should also be set at corner vaults where possible.

Identify lightwave equipment that will be used and ensure that the equipment will function properly with the fiber cable being installed. When an outdoor rated fiber cable enters a building, it should be spliced to an indoor-type fiber cable within 50 feet from the cable entrance to meet NEC code.

All vertical cable must be secured at the top of the run. A split mesh grip is recommended to secure the cable. If future cable pulls in the same duct or conduit are a possibility, the use of innerduct to sectionalize the available duct space is recommended.

Without this sectionalization, additional cable pulls can entangle an operating cable and could cause an interruption in service. A small amount of slack cable feet can be useful in the event that cable repair or relocation is needed.

Cables should be tested after shipping. Damage to cabling can occur during shipping or installation. Failing to test fiber cabling after it is delivered is a common mistake made by installers.

If insertion loss suddenly increases with an adapter or connector, the cause may be dirt. You should always clean the connector and adapter before plugging them in. Properly attach the pulling eye and swivel to the cable. Ensure that the pulling eye and swivel assembly have no sharp edges and can easily fit through all conduits, pull boxes, and cable trays.

When pulling the fiber out of a section, coil the cable on the floor in a figure 8 pattern to avoid twisting. Continue the cable pull until all the cable has been pulled through. Identify the exact fiber optic cable route and ensure that it meets all installation specifications.

Obtain all required fiber cable installation authorizations and permits along the route. Record all required fiber optic facility details, including proper route drawings, fiber assignments, loss readings, OTDR traces, etc.

Prepare emergency repair plans. Only remove connector and adapter duct caps prior to making the connection. Do not let the connector tough any surface once the duct cap has been removed. When making a connection, the connector should attach to the adapter smoothly. Do not rotate the connector when making the connection.

Never force a connector onto an adapter. A fiber optic cable should be tested three separate times during an installation: on the reel, the splicing test, and the final acceptance test.

Extreme caution should be observed when performing an aerial installation. The proper personnel should be contacted so that they are on the site when work is performed near high-voltage lines. Cables that are installed in the vicinity of high-voltage power lines should be grounded, including all-dielectric cables.

Maintain proper clearance between the fiber optic cable and power cable at all times. Always make allowances for power cable sag due to weather and current conditions.

Cable sag increases in warm weather or when power cable is passing heavy current. When a steel messenger wire is used for aerial installation, avoid zigzagging the messenger wire from one pole side to the other. Instead, make sure it is kept on one side as much as possible.

Follow Building Codes: Always obey all local, and national, fire and building codes. Use plenum rated cable where it is mandated, etc. Do make every effort to pull cables from a conduit in as straight an angle as possible.

Pulling on an angle can cause damage to the cable. The typical LAN has copper and fiber sections and links to connect to wireless access points for universal WiFi connectivity. Data centers are unique applications that house multiple Internet servers and storage networks operating at very high speeds using combinations of short copper and fiber links.

Other systems may carry security systems with digital or analog video, perimeter alarms or entry systems, which are usually low speeds, at least as far as fiber is concerned.

Premises telephone systems can be carried on traditional twisted pair cables or, as is becoming more common, utilize LAN cabling with voice over IP VoIP technology.

Premises networks are usually short, often less than the meters about feet used as the limit for standardized structured cabling systems that allow twisted pair copper or fiber optic cabling, with backbones on campus networks used in industrial complexes or institutions as long as m or more, requiring optical fiber.

Premises networks generally operate over multimode fiber. Astute designers and end users often include both multimode and singlemode fibers in their backbone cables called hybrid cables since singlemode fibers are very inexpensive and it provides a virtually unlimited ability to expand the systems.

Premises networks will include a entrance facility where outside plant and premises communications systems meet. This facility must include not only cabling connections but compatible communications equipment.

Since it is indoors, it must consider issues for building and electrical codes, such as the common requirement that bare OSP cables can only come 50 feet about 15 meters before being terminated in fire-rated cables unless it is in conduit.

Outside Plant Networks Outside plant networks refers to all systems that are outdoors, not inside buildings or campuses.

They are typically longer networks uses for telecom, CATV, utilities, security, metropolitan networks, etc. Telephone networks are mainly outside plant OSP systems, connecting buildings over distances as short as a few hundred meters to hundreds or thousands of kilometers.

Data rates for telecom are typically 2. The big push for telecom is now taking fiber directly to a commercial building or the home, since the signals are now too fast for traditional twisted copper pairs.

CATV also uses singlemode fibers with systems that are either hybrid fiber-coax HFC or digital where the backbone is fiber and the connection to the home is on coax.

Coax still works for CATV since it has very high bandwidth itself. Some CATV providers have discussed or even tried some fiber to the home, but have not seen the economics become attractive yet. Besides telecom and CATV, there are many other OSP applications of fiber.

Security monitoring systems in large buildings like airports, government and commercial buildings, casinos, etc. are generally connected on fiber due to the long distances involved. Like other networks, premises applications are usually multimode while OSP is singlemode to support longer links.

Metropolitan networks owned and operated by cities can carry a variety of traffic, including surveillance cameras, emergency services, educational systems, telephone, LAN, security, traffic monitoring and control and sometimes even traffic for commercial interests using leased bandwidth on dark fibers or city-owned fibers.

However, since most are designed to support longer links than premises or campus applications, singlemode is the fiber of choice. For all except premises applications, fiber is the communications medium of choice, since its greater distance and bandwidth capabilities make it either the only choice or considerably less expensive than copper or wireless.

Only inside buildings is there a choice to be made, and that choice is affected by economics, network architecture and the tradition of using copper inside buildings. Cabling Design Copper, Fiber or Wireless?

Communications technology and the end user market, it seems, have already made decisions that generally dictate the media and many networks combine all three. The designer of cabling networks, especially fiber optic networks, and their customers today generally have a pretty easy task deciding which media to use once the communications systems are chosen.

Long Distance and Outside Plant Cabling Other than telco systems that still use copper for the final connection to the home, practically every cable in the telephone system is fiber optic. CATV companies use a high performance coax into the home, but it connects to a fiber optic backbone.

The Internet backbone is all fiber. Most commercial buildings in populous areas have direct fiber connections from communications suppliers. Cities use SM fiber to connect municipal buildings, surveillance cameras, traffic signals and sometimes offer commercial and residential connections, all over singlemode fiber.

Even cellular antenna towers along highways and on tall buildings usually have fiber connections. Remote areas such as central Africa depend on satellite communications since cables are too expensive to run long distances for the small amounts of traffic involved.

Designing long distance or outside plant applications generally means choosing cabling containing singlemode SM fiber over all other media. Most of these systems are designed to be used over distances and speeds that preclude anything but SM fiber.

Occasionally other options may be more cost effective, for example if a company has two buildings on opposite sides of a highway, a line-of-sight or radio optical wireless network may be easier to use since they have lower cost of installation and are easier to obtain relevant permits.

The choice of the actual singlemode fiber, however, can depend on the application. Depending on the length of the link, the wavelength of the transmitters, data rate of the transmission and if CWDM or DWDM are planned, different types of fiber may be optimal.

Refer to the section on on fiber for more details. Premises Cabling The desire for mobility, along with the expansion of connected services, appears to lead to a new type of corporate network.

Fiber optic backbone with copper to the desktop where people want direct connections and multiple wireless access points, more than is common in the past, for full coverage and maintaining a reasonable number of users per access point is the new norm for corporate networks.

Surveillance systems are becoming more prevalent in buildings, especially governmental, banking, or other buildings that are considered possible security risks. While coax connections are common in short links and structured cabling advocates say you can run cameras limited distances on Cat 5E or Cat 6 UPT like computer networks, fiber has become a much more common choice.

Besides offering greater flexibility in camera placement because of its distance capability, fiber optic cabling is much smaller and lightweight, allowing easier installation, especially in older facilities like airports or large buildings that may have available spaces already filled with many generations of copper cabling.

When these premises communications systems connect to the outside world, it is generally to singlemode optical fiber. The entrance facility and equipment room must accommodate the equipment needed to make those connections.

Use of Cabling Standards Many documents relating to cable plant design focus on industry standards for both communications systems and cable plants. It is important to realize why and by whom these standards are written.

Choosing Transmission Equipment And Links Choosing transmission equipment is the next step in designing a fiber optic network. This step will usually be a cooperative venture involving the customer, who knows what kinds of data they need to communicate, the designer and installer, and the manufacturers of transmission equipment.

Transmission equipment and the cable plant are tightly interrelated. The distance and bandwidth will help determine the fiber type necessary and that will dictate the optical interfaces on the cable plant.

The ease of choosing equipment may depend on the type of communications equipment needed. Telecom has been standardized on fiber optics for 30 years now, so they have plenty of experience building and installing equipment.

Since most telecom equipment uses industry conventions, you can usually find equipment for telecom transmission that will be available for short links usually metropolitan networks, maybe up to km , long distance and then really long distance like undersea runs.

All run on singlemode fiber, but may specify different types of singlemode. Shorter telecom links will use nm lasers on regular singlemode fiber, often referred to as G.

Longer links will use a dispersion-shifted fiber optimized for operation with nm lasers G. For most applications, one of these will be used. Most telco equipment companies offer both options.

Most CATV links are AM analog systems based on special highly linear lasers called distributed feedback DFB lasers using either nm or nm operating on regular singlemode fibers. As CATV moves to digital transmission, it will use technology more like telecom, which is already all digital.

The choices become more complex when it comes to data and CCTV because the applications are so varied and standards may not exist. In addition, equipment may not be available with fiber optic transmission options, requiring conversion from copper ports to fiber using devices called media converters.

In computer networks, the Ethernet standards, created by the IEEE You can read the standards and see how far each equipment option can transmit over different types of fiber, choosing the one that meets your needs.

Most network hardware like switches or routers are available with optional fiber optic interfaces, but PCs generally only come with UTP copper interfaces that require media converters. Media converters will also allow the choice of media appropriate for the customer application, allowing use with multimode or singlemode fiber and may even offer transceiver options for the distance that must be covered by the link.

CCTV is a similar application. More cameras now come with fiber interfaces since so many CCTV systems are in locations like big buildings, airports, or areas where the distances exceed the capability of coax transmission.

If not, video media converters, usually available from the same vendors as the Ethernet media converters, are readily available and also inexpensive. Again, choose converters that meet the link requirements set by the customer application, which in the case of video, not only includes distance but also functions, as some video links carry control signals to the camera for camera pan, zoom and tilt in addition to video back to a central location.

What about industrial data links? Many factories use fiber optics for its immunity to electromagnetic interference. But industrial links may use proprietary means to send data converted from old copper standards like RS, the ancient serial interface once available on every PC, SCADA popular in the utility industry, or even simple relay closures.

Many companies that build these control links offer fiber optic interfaces themselves in response to customer requests. Some of these links have been available for decades, as industrial applications were some of the first premises uses of fiber optics, dating back to before Most operate over regular graded-index multimode fiber although some have been designed around large core PCS plastic-clad silica fibers.

While the telecom and CATV applications are cut and dried and the data Ethernet applications covered by standards, it is our experience that not all manufacturers specify their products in exactly the same way. One company in the industrial marketplace offered about fifteen different fiber optic products, mainly media converters for their control equipment.

However, those fifteen products had been designed by at least a dozen different engineers, not all of whom were familiar with fiber optics and especially fiber jargon and specifications.

As a result, one could not compare the products to make a choice or design them into a network based on specifications. Until their design, sales and applications engineers were trained in fiber optics and created guidelines for product applications, they suffered from continual problems in customer application.

The only way to make sure you are choosing the proper transmission equipment is to make absolutely certain the customer and equipment vendor — and you — are communicating clearly what you are planning to do. One thing to remember — every installation will be unique. The actual placement of the cable plant will be determined by the physical locations along the route, local building codes or laws and other individuals involved in the designs.

As usual, premises and outside plant installations are different so we will consider them separately. Premises and campus installations can be simpler since the physical area involved is smaller and the options fewer. Having access to them means you have someone to ask for information and advice.

Hopefully the drawings are available as CAD files so you can have a copy to do the network cabling design in your computer, which makes tweaking and documenting the design so much easier. If the building is still in the design stage, you may have the opportunity to provide inputs on the needs of the cable plant.

Ideally, that means you can influence the location of equipment rooms, routing of cable trays and conduits, availability of adequate conditioned power and separate data grounds, sufficient air-conditioning and other needs of the network.

For pre-existing buildings, detailed architectural drawings will provide you with the ability to route cabling and network equipment around the obstacles invariably in your way. Outside plant OSP cabling installations have enormous variety depending on the route the cable must take.

The route may cross long lengths of open fields, run along paved rural or urban roads, cross roads, ravines, rivers or lakes, or, more likely, some combination of all of these.

It could require buried cables, aerial cables or underwater cables. Cable may be in conduit, innerduct or direct buried, aerial cables may be self-supporting or lashed to a messenger. Longer runs often include crossing water, so the cable may be underwater or be lashed across a bridge with other cables.

GIS Geographic Information Systems Outside plant installations depend heavily on maps and data about the cable plant route. Site Visits And as soon as possible, you must visit the site or route where the network will be installed.

Outside plant routes need to be driven or walked every foot of the way to determine the best options for cable placement, obstacles to be avoided or overcome, and to determine what local entities may have input into the routing.

Often cities or other governments will know of available conduits or rules on using utility poles that can save design time and effort. For installations inside current buildings, you should inspect every area to be absolutely certain you know what the building really looks like and then mark up drawings to reflect reality, especially all obstacles to running cabling and hardware and walls requiring firestopping that are not on the current drawings.

Take pictures if you can. For buildings under construction, a site visit is still a good idea, just to get a feeling of what the final structure will be like and to get to know the construction managers you will be working with.

They may be the best source of information on who the local authorities are who will be inspecting your work and what they expect. OSP network route on satellite map With all those options on OSP installations, where do you start?

With a good map. Creating a route map is the first step, noting other utilities along the route on that map, and checking with groups that document the current utilities to prevent contractors from damaging currently installed pipes and cables.

OSP installs are subject to approval by local, state and federal authorities who will influence heavily how your project is designed. Some cities, for example, ban aerial cables. Some have already buried conduit which you can use for specific routes.

Since many municipalities have installed city-owned fiber networks, they may have fiber you can rent, rather than go through the hassle of installing your own.

Unless you are doing work for a utility that has someone who already has the contacts and hopefully easements needed, you may get to know a whole new set of people who have control over your activities. And you have to plan for adequate time to get approval from everyone who is involved.

Dig Once Governments and other organizations that control rights-of-way face a difficult problem in the Internet age - the continual digging up of their properties for cable plant installation.

Fiber Brain-boosting foods installation Fber Herbal inflammation reducers Fibe for your business. It delivers greater bandwidth capacity and less chance of intsallation electromagnetic interference you receive Herbal inflammation reducers a copper cable. The Network Fibe specialize in various fiber optic cable installation services to deliver the speed and reliability of service your business depends on. We offer fiber optic fusion splicing and cable repair, as well as regular network audits to ensure the integrity of your fiber optic cables. Fiber optic installation involves fiber optic cable laying to deliver high-speed internet to a building. FFiber Geographic Optif Herbal inflammation reducers. Outside plant installations installatio heavily on maps and data nrtwork the nnetwork plant route. Stress management techniques for emotional well-being can include basic data on the local geology, locations of road, buildings, underground and aerial utilities, and much oltic. GIS Geographic Information Systems are generally used to create very detailed maps of the routes of OSP cable plants during the design phase. It is beyond the scope of this book to examine GISs in detail but the designer should learn how to utilize a GIS to create the design to facilitate not only the design of the cable plant but also create documentation for the network. It is important to understand the limitation of GIS. Fiber optic network installation


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