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Promoting self-care in diabetes wellness

Promoting self-care in diabetes wellness

Doubt seld-care the self-cwre of diabetes Hot flashes relief the Hot flashes relief of a wellbess plan can Prkmoting a person from taking their medication, and this can Stress relief through organization to complications. These forces and systems include economic policies and systems, development agendas, social norms, social policies, and political systems. Share on Pinterest Regular exercise may help control blood sugar levels. Additional support from the entire care team and referral to DSMES are appropriate responses to any of these needs.


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Promoting self-care in diabetes wellness -

Self-care in diabetes has been defined as an evolutionary process of development of knowledge or awareness by learning to survive with the complex nature of the diabetes in a social context[ 20 , 21 ].

There are seven essential self-care behaviors in people with diabetes which predict good outcomes. These are healthy eating, being physically active, monitoring of blood sugar, compliant with medications, good problem-solving skills, healthy coping skills and risk-reduction behaviors[ 26 ].

These proposed measures can be useful for both clinicians and educators treating individual patients and for researchers evaluating new approaches to care. Self-report is by far the most practical and cost-effective approach to self-care assessment and yet is often seen as undependable.

Diabetes self-care activities are behaviors undertaken by people with or at risk of diabetes in order to successfully manage the disease on their own[ 26 ]. All these seven behaviors have been found to be positively correlated with good glycemic control, reduction of complications and improvement in quality of life[ 27 — 31 ].

In addition, it was observed that self-care encompasses not only performing these activities but also the interrelationships between them[ 32 ]. Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle modifications supplemented with the supportive role of healthcare staff for maintaining a higher level of self-confidence leading to a successful behavior change[ 33 ].

Though genetics play an important role in the development of diabetes, monozygotic twin studies have certainly shown the importance of environmental influences[ 34 ]. Individuals with diabetes have been shown to make a dramatic impact on the progression and development of their disease by participating in their own care[ 13 ].

This participation can succeed only if those with diabetes and their health care providers are informed about taking effective care for the disease.

It is expected that those with the greatest knowledge will have a better understanding of the disease and have a better impact on the progression of the disease and complications. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists emphasizes the importance of patients becoming active and knowledgeable participants in their care[ 35 ].

Likewise, WHO has also recognized the importance of patients learning to manage their diabetes[ 36 ]. The American Diabetes Association had reviewed the standards of diabetes self management education and found that there was a four-fold increase in diabetic complications for those individuals with diabetes who had not received formal education concerning self-care practices[ 37 ].

A meta-analysis of self-management education for adults with type-2 diabetes revealed improvement in glycemic control at immediate follow-up. However, the observed benefit declined one to three months after the intervention ceased, suggesting that continuing education is necessary[ 38 ].

A review of diabetes self-management education revealed that education is successful in lowering glycosylated hemoglobin levels[ 39 ]. Diabetes education is important but it must be transferred to action or self-care activities to fully benefit the patient.

Self-care activities refer to behaviors such as following a diet plan, avoiding high fat foods, increased exercise, self-glucose monitoring, and foot care[ 40 ].

Changes in self-care activities should also be evaluated for progress toward behavioral change[ 41 ]. Self-monitoring of glycemic control is a cornerstone of diabetes care that can ensure patient participation in achieving and maintaining specific glycemic targets.

The most important objective of monitoring is the assessment of overall glycemic control and initiation of appropriate steps in a timely manner to achieve optimum control.

Self-monitoring provides information about current glycemic status, allowing for assessment of therapy and guiding adjustments in diet, exercise and medication in order to achieve optimal glycemic control. Irrespective of weight loss, engaging in regular physical activity has been found to be associated with improved health outcomes among diabetics[ 42 — 45 ].

The National Institutes of Health[ 46 ] and the American College of Sports Medicine[ 47 ] recommend that all adults, including those with diabetes, should engage in regular physical activity.

Treatment adherence in diabetes is an area of interest and concern to health professionals and clinical researchers even though a great deal of prior research has been done in the area. In diabetes, patients are expected to follow a complex set of behavioral actions to care for their diabetes on a daily basis.

These actions involve engaging in positive lifestyle behaviors, including following a meal plan and engaging in appropriate physical activity; taking medications insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent when indicated; monitoring blood glucose levels; responding to and self-treating diabetes- related symptoms; following foot-care guidelines; and seeking individually appropriate medical care for diabetes or other health-related problems[ 48 ].

The majority of patients with diabetes can significantly reduce the chances of developing long-term complications by improving self-care activities. In the process of delivering adequate support healthcare providers should not blame the patients even when their compliance is poor[ 49 ].

One of the realities about type-2 diabetes is that only being compliant to self-care activities will not lead to good metabolic control.

Research work across the globe has documented that metabolic control is a combination of many variables, not just patient compliance[ 51 , 52 ].

In an American trial, it was found that participants were more likely to make changes when each change was implemented individually. Success, therefore, may vary depending on how the changes are implemented, simultaneously or individually[ 53 ].

Some of the researchers have even suggested that health professionals should tailor their patient self-care support based on the degree of personal responsibility the patient is willing to assume towards their diabetes self-care management[ 54 ].

The role of healthcare providers in care of diabetic patients has been well recognized. Socio-demographic and cultural barriers such as poor access to drugs, high cost, patient satisfaction with their medical care, patient provider relationship, degree of symptoms, unequal distribution of health providers between urban and rural areas have restricted self-care activities in developing countries[ 39 , 55 — 58 ].

Another study stressed on both patient factors adherence, attitude, beliefs, knowledge about diabetes, culture and language capabilities, health literacy, financial resources, co-morbidities and social support and clinician related factors attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes, effective communication [ 60 ].

Because diabetes self-care activities can have a dramatic impact on lowering glycosylated hemoglobin levels, healthcare providers and educators should evaluate perceived patient barriers to self-care behaviors and make recommendations with these in mind. Unfortunately, though patients often look to healthcare providers for guidance, many healthcare providers are not discussing self-care activities with patients[ 61 ].

Some patients may experience difficulty in understanding and following the basics of diabetes self-care activities. When adhering to self-care activities patients are sometimes expected to make what would in many cases be a medical decision and many patients are not comfortable or able to make such complex assessments.

It is critical that health care providers actively involve their patients in developing self-care regimens for each individual patient. This regimen should be the best possible combination for every individual patient plus it should sound realistic to the patient so that he or she can follow it[ 62 ].

Also, the need of regular follow-up can never be underestimated in a chronic illness like diabetes and therefore be looked upon as an integral component of its long term management. A clinician should be able to recognize patients who are prone for non-compliance and thus give special attention to them.

On a grass-root level, countries need good diabetes self-management education programs at the primary care level with emphasis on motivating good self-care behaviors especially lifestyle modification. Furthermore, these programs should not happen just once, but periodic reinforcement is necessary to achieve change in behavior and sustain the same for long-term.

While organizing these education programs adequate social support systems such as support groups, should be arranged. As most of the reported studies are from developed countries so there is an immense need for extensive research in rural areas of developing nations.

Concurrently, field research should be promoted in developing countries about perceptions of patients on the effectiveness of their self-care management so that resources for diabetes mellitus can be used efficiently. To prevent diabetes related morbidity and mortality, there is an immense need of dedicated self-care behaviors in multiple domains, including food choices, physical activity, proper medications intake and blood glucose monitoring from the patients.

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Post comment. Whitepaper: Diabetes and its Effects on Every System in the Body. Get ypour FREE copy now! Skip to content. The Role of Self-Care in Diabetes Management. But what exactly is self-care in diabetes management, and why is it important?

What is Self-Care? Diabetes Self-Management Education DSME First, you need to be trained on how to manage your type of diabetes best. Some key topics covered in DSME programs include: Understanding the different types of diabetes and their effects on the body The importance of regular blood glucose monitoring and interpreting the results Developing a personalised meal plan based on individual needs and preferences The benefits of regular physical activity and how to incorporate it into daily routines Recognizing and managing the signs and symptoms of high and low blood sugar levels Identifying and managing stress and other emotional issues related to diabetes Proper use of medications and insulin therapy, if applicable These programs often include individualised assessments, goal setting, problem-solving, and ongoing support from qualified professionals.

Gaining a Better Overview of Blood Sugar Levels Over Time Managing blood sugar levels is a crucial aspect of diabetes self-care. Physical Self-Care Physical self-care is essential for maintaining good health and managing diabetes effectively.

Regular physical activity has numerous benefits for people with diabetes, including: Improved insulin sensitivity, which helps the body use insulin more effectively Lower blood sugar levels and better overall blood sugar control Increased energy and reduced fatigue Weight management, which reduces the risk of diabetes-related complications Lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of heart disease Experts recommend 3 at least minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise per week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on two or more days per week.

Mental Self-Care Mental self-care involves taking care of your mental and emotional health. Some effective mental self-care strategies for people with diabetes include: Practicing mindfulness e. Yoga, Journaling, Breathing Methods, Meditation etc.

to increase awareness and reduce stress Seeking professional help, such as counselling or therapy, to address emotional challenges related to diabetes Engaging in hobbies and activities that bring you joy and relaxation Building a solid support network of your family, friends, and fellow people with diabetes Prioritizing sleep and maintaining a consistent sleep schedule to promote mental and emotional well-being These practices will help you manage the emotional and mental toll of living with the condition and improve your quality of life.

Enriched Information for Your Healthcare Team Your healthcare team plays a critical role in your diabetes management, but they can only help you as much as the information you provide them. Conclusion Strive to build self-care practices and do them on a daily basis as they help you manage your condition more effectively and improve your quality of life.

Sources: Bonoto BC, de Araújo VE, Godói IP, de Lemos LL, Godman B, Bennie M, Diniz LM, Junior AA. Efficacy of Mobile Apps to Support the Care of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. doi: PMID: ; PMCID: PMC El-Gayar O, Timsina P, Nawar N, Eid W. Mobile applications for diabetes self-management: status and potential. J Diabetes Sci Technol. Lin EH, Von Korff M, Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Anthony J, Bromet E, Bruffaerts R, Gasquet I, de Girolamo G, Gureje O, Haro JM, Karam E, Lara C, Lee S, Levinson D, Ormel JH, Posada-Villa J, Scott K, Watanabe M, Williams D.

Mental disorders among persons with diabetes—results from the World Mental Health Surveys. J Psychosom Res. Epub Oct Bădescu SV, Tătaru C, Kobylinska L, Georgescu EL, Zahiu DM, Zăgrean AM, Zăgrean L.

The association between Diabetes mellitus and Depression. J Med Life. Tags: blood sugar diabetes diabetes management exercise important stress. Share This Article. Share on Facebook Share on Facebook Tweet Share on Twitter Pin it Share on Pinterest Share on LinkedIn Share on LinkedIn.

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