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Natural antioxidant sources

Natural antioxidant sources

Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Casadesus G Wntioxidant the deleterious effects of Hydration and post-workout nutrition on neuronal aantioxidant and behavior: beneficial Natural antioxidant sources of Natural antioxidant sources polyphenolic compounds. Gladyshev VN. Marine halogenated compounds assemble a large antiooxidant of other useful compounds such as indoles, peptides, terpenes, phenols, acetogenins, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. Polyphenolic characterization and antioxidant activity of Malus domestica and Prunus domestica cultivars from Costa Rica. To meet your nutritional needs, as a minimum try to consume a serve of fruit and vegetables daily. isolated two polysaccharides from fruiting body of A. Gulcin İ Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview. Natural antioxidant sources

Natural antioxidant sources -

Amounts up to milligrams taken twice daily for 12 weeks appear to be very safe for helping manage a number of inflammatory health problems, including heart disease and blood vessel problems, allergies, infections, chronic fatigue and symptoms related to autoimmune disorders like arthritis.

Lutein has benefits for the eyes, skin, arteries, heart and immune system, although food sources of antioxidants seem to be generally more effective and safer than supplements.

Some evidence shows that people who obtain more lutein from their diets experience lower rates of breast, colon, cervical and lung cancers. Known for improving immunity, vitamin C helps protect against colds, the flu, and potentially cancer, skin and eye problems. Resveratrol is an active ingredient found in cocoa, red grapes and dark berries, such as lingonberries, blueberries, mulberries and bilberries.

Astaxanthin is found in wild-caught salmon and krill and has benefits like reducing age spots, boosting energy levels, supporting joint health and preventing symptoms of ADHD.

Selenium is a trace mineral found naturally in the soil that also appears in certain foods, and there are even small amounts in water. Selenium benefits adrenal and thyroid health and helps protect cognition. It may also fight off viruses, defend against heart disease and slow down symptoms correlated with other serious conditions, like asthma.

Chlorophyll is very helpful for detoxification and linked to natural cancer prevention, blocking carcinogenic effects within the body, and protecting DNA from damage caused by toxins or stress. Cooking can alter the content of antioxidants in food, and certain cooking methods can have a different impact on antioxidant levels.

One study published in Preventive Nutrition and Food Science evaluated the effects of different cooking methods on the antioxidant content of red pepper to determine which methods can help minimize antioxidant loss.

Interestingly, researchers found that stir-frying and roasting helped retain the most antioxidants, while boiling and steaming caused significant reductions in antioxidant levels. Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a water-soluble vitamin, which means that it dissolves in water.

For this reason, cooking food in water with methods like boiling can cause a huge reduction in antioxidant content. However, not all compounds on the antioxidants list are affected in the same way by cooking. For example, one study found that consuming tomatoes cooked in olive oil significantly enhanced levels of lycopene in the blood by up to 82 percent compared to a control group.

Similarly, another study in British Journal of Nutrition showed that stir-frying carrots significantly boosted the absorption of beta-carotene. For example, because during exercise oxygen consumption can increase by a factor of more than 10, taking high doses of antioxidants might interfere with proper exercise recovery.

When it comes to protection against things like cancer or heart disease, overall the medical literature seems conflicting. Although some studies found a positive relationship between antioxidant supplementation and risk reduction, others have not found such positive effects.

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Axe on Twitter 5 Dr. Axe on Facebook 22 Dr. Nonanimal sulfated polysaccharides are reported to have antioxidant activities [ ], which can be obtained from marine algae and other marine organisms from the phaeophyta group [ ].

A large number of different species of algae and microalgae have been studied for the use of their bioactive contents as functional food components. Algae comprised of a huge and complex group of photosynthetic organisms with simple reproductive organs, which can be multicellular, known as macroalgae and unicellular called as microalgae.

Algae grow in extremes of environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and salinity, which results in the production of a large number of reactive oxygen species ROS.

To cope with these ROS, algae produce various secondary metabolites with many antioxidant activities such as phycobilins, polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamins [ ]. People living in coastal areas use many types of seaweed, both as fresh and dry forms, as a natural source of food, and from the research, it is known that these seaweeds contain a large amount of proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

Although the composition of these seaweeds varies according to their species, geographical distribution, temperature, and seasonal variation, the overall nutritional value remains the same. Many compounds from marine algae possess anticancer activity, and recently, seaweeds have gained attention as a rich source of antioxidants [ ].

Many of the secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms reflect the presence of chloride and bromide ions in seawater. Marine halogenated compounds assemble a large number of other useful compounds such as indoles, peptides, terpenes, phenols, acetogenins, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons.

This protective effect suggests the presence of antioxidant compounds that show their antioxidant activity as free radical scavengers, hydrogen-donating compounds, single oxygen quenchers, and metal ion chelators.

Many biological compounds have previously isolated from some other marine organisms such as fish, crustaceans, and their byproducts [ ]. Seaweeds also create a suitable environment to a large number of bacteria that live on their surface having much more diversity of microorganisms as compared to other multicellular organisms [ ].

These associated microorganisms have a protective effect on the seaweeds from pathogen, and they produce a large number of bioactive compounds of biomedical importance [ ].

Exopolysaccharides produced by these bacterial species are used as an ingredient in food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries and emulsification of crude oil, vegetables, mineral oils, and bioremediation agents in environment management systems [ ].

Fish protein hydrolysate FPH , which is prepared from various marine organisms such as mackerel, tuna, Alaska Pollock, and yellowfin sole, has also been reported to have antioxidant activity [ , , ]. Many types of peptides are obtained from fish muscle, bone, skin, and other tissues.

All of these amino acids can scavenge-free radicals, but the most powerful scavenging activity attributes to those who can easily donate hydrogen atoms. These amino acids are cystine and methionine, which have nucleophilic sulfur-containing side chains or tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, which have aromatic side chains.

Peptide size and amino acid composition are important for the FPH because it determines its antioxidant nature [ ]. An in vitro study on phycocyanin, a pigment obtained from blue-green algae, reveals its antioxidant activity.

It was evaluated in vitro by the use of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence LCL. This antioxidant activity was also confirmed in vivo by induction of inflammation in mice paw with glucose oxidase.

The edema caused by inflammation was reduced, and the luminous signal indicated that the phycocyanin can scavenge OH˙ and RO˙ [ ]. Algal antioxidants are also used in the cosmeceutical industries as antiaging agents [ ].

A carotenoid pigment known as astaxanthin, found in microalga Haematococcus pluvialis , is reported to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities [ ].

An increasing interest has been observed from the past decade in exploring the natural ingredients to be used in the food and food products.

The researchers from all over the world are focusing on the alternate sources other than the synthetic one, which will be more safe and convenient as dietary component. Moreover, the synthetic antioxidants and preservatives in the food may lead to lipid peroxidation and deterioration of food flavor and quality.

The use of natural herbs, spices, and plant ingredients is in practice from the ancient times and still practiced in the traditional food preparation as preservative, aroma, and flavor. This chapter is an effort to overview the potentials of various natural sources having reasonable antioxidant potential.

The literature reports compiled here will be beneficial to identify the significance of various natural sources based on their antioxidant capacity, active ingredients, and geographic availability. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Edited by Emad Shalaby. Open access peer-reviewed chapter Antioxidants from Natural Sources Written By Haseeb Anwar, Ghulam Hussain and Imtiaz Mustafa. DOWNLOAD FOR FREE Share Cite Cite this chapter There are two ways to cite this chapter:.

Choose citation style Select style Vancouver APA Harvard IEEE MLA Chicago Copy to clipboard Get citation. Choose citation style Select format Bibtex RIS Download citation. IntechOpen Antioxidants in Foods and Its Applications Edited by Emad Shalaby. From the Edited Volume Antioxidants in Foods and Its Applications Edited by Emad Shalaby and Ghada Mostafa Azzam Book Details Order Print.

Chapter metrics overview 5, Chapter Downloads View Full Metrics. Impact of this chapter. Abstract Antioxidants are the defense system of the body against the damage of reactive oxygen species, which is normally produced during the various physiological processes in the body.

Keywords antioxidants vegetables fruits plants herbs. Introduction The formations of oxygen reactive forms as a result of rigorous oxidative processes taking place in human organism are the potent precursors of systemic cells and tissues damage.

Types of antioxidants from fruits and vegetables Polyphenols, present in fruits and vegetables, is a group of several low- and high-molecular-weight compounds having antioxidant properties that prevent lipid oxidation [ 17 ].

Antioxidants from fruits and vegetables wastes Fruits and vegetable waste material is produced during their cultivation, industrial management, processing, preservation, and distribution [ 26 ]. No English name Antioxidant contents Concentration ORAC value References 1. Beet root Betalains [ ] 2.

Guava β-Carotene, lycopene, vitamin C, ellagic acid, anthocyanin [ ] 3. Water melon Lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C [ ] 7.

Apple Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, and naringenin derivatives ; phenolic acids protocatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ; hydroxychalcones phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives ; and isoprenoid glycosides vomifoliol derivatives Flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones, and hydroxycinnamates Plum Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, and naringenin derivatives ; phenolic acids protocatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ; hydroxychalcones phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives ; and isoprenoid glycosides vomifoliol derivatives Guava β-Carotene, lycopene, vitamin C, ellagic acid, anthocyanin Table 1.

Some important fruits having antioxidant constituents. No Fruit Residue Antioxidant Reference 1. Banana Unripe green fruit and peel Phenols and flavonoids [ , ] 2. Mango Peel, kernel Gallic acid, ellagic acid, gallates, gallotannins, condensed tannins [ , ] 3.

Water melon Peel, rinds Citrulline, lycopene, flavonoids, and phenols [ , ] 4. Cucumber Peel Flavonoids and phenols [ 33 ] 5. Potato Peel Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and phenols [ , ] 6.

Coffee Coffee ground and residue Polyphenols, tannins, and gallic acids [ , 38 ] 7. Apple Peel Epicatechin, catechins, anthocyanins, quercetin glycosides, chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamates, phloretin glycosides, and procyanidins [ ] 8.

Grapes Skin and seeds Coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, neochlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin 3-o-gluuronide, quercetin, and resveratrol [ , ] 9.

Guava Skin and seeds Catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, and kaempferol [ ] Pomegranate Peel and pericarp Gallic acid, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidindiglucoside, and delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside [ , ] Vegetables Carrot Peel Phenols, β-carotene [ ] Cucumber Peel Phenols, flavonoids, pheophytin, phellandrene, caryophyllene [ 33 , ] Potato Peel Gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and phenols [ , , ] Tomato Skin and pomace Carotenoids [ ].

Table 2. Antioxidants from some fruits and vegetable wastes. Mushrooms as antioxidant In the nutrition world, mushrooms are delegated vegetables; however, they are not actually plants. Agaricus bisporus A. Armillaria mellea A. Auricularia auricula A. Boletus edulis B.

Ganoderma lucidum Ganoderma lucidum is also commonly known as Lingzhi, a basidiomycete fungus, native to China and grows in mountain woods with humid and dim-light conditions, in the rotten bark or root of tree.

Grifola frondosa G. Hypsizigus marmoreus H. Lentinus edodes L. Pleurotus ostreatus Pleurotus ostreatus is the third most cultivated mushroom worldwide after A. Schizophyllum commune S. Medicinal plants and spices having antioxidants 2.

Allium sativum A. Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum red pepper is native to southern North America and northern South America and was introduced in Asia in sixteenth century from South America [ ].

Curcuma longa Curcuma longa is a well-known spice that has a place in the Zingiberaceae family and is a lasting herb that measures up to 1 m high with a short stem. Eugenia caryophyllus Eugenia caryophyllus commonly known as clove is a medium-size tree m that belongs to family Myrtaceae.

Geranium sanguineum Geranium sanguineum , usually called as bloody cranesbill, is a herbaceous plant that belongs to family Geraniaceae. Pistacia lentiscus Pistacia lentiscus is extensively used in folk medicine by rural populations in Algeria. Salvia officinalis Salvia officinalis , also known as garden sage, belongs to family Lamiaceae and possesses strong antioxidant property [ ].

Leea indica Leea indica belongs to the family Vitaceae and has been traditionally used as natural folk medicine in Malaysia. Polyalthia cerasoides Polyalthia cerasoides belongs to the family Annonaceae and is a medicinal plant used in Thai native medicine.

Antioxidants from marine sources Marine ecosystem has been reported as a potential source of biodiversity and chemical activities.

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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils: A short review. Valko M et al. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease.

Anwar H et al. Effect of protein, probiotic, and symbiotic supplementation on serum biological health markers of molted layers. Poultry Science. Carocho M, Ferreira IC. A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: Natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives.

Food and Chemical Toxicology. Asif M. Chemistry and antioxidant activity of plants containing some phenolic compounds. Chemistry International. Ramalakshmi K, Kubra IR, Rao LJM. Antioxidant potential of low-grade coffee beans.

Food Research International. Dembinska-Kiec A et al. Antioxidant phytochemicals against type 2 diabetes. British Journal of Nutrition. Cao G et al. Serum antioxidant capacity is increased by consumption of strawberries, spinach, red wine or vitamin C in elderly women. The Journal of Nutrition.

Salinthone S et al. α-Tocopherol vitamin E stimulates cyclic AMP production in human peripheral mononuclear cells and alters immune function. Molecular Immunology. Shebis Y et al. Natural antioxidants: Function and sources.

Food and Nutrition Sciences. Binic I et al. Skin ageing: Natural weapons and strategies. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Advances in Nutrition. Nahak G, Suar M, Sahu RK. Antioxidant potential and nutritional values of vegetables: A review.

Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. Hurrell RF. Influence of vegetable protein sources on trace element and mineral bioavailability. Sonia N, Mini C, Geethalekshmi P. Vegetable peels as natural antioxidants for processed foods—a review.

Agricultural Reviews. Parr AJ, Bolwell GP. Phenols in the plant and in man. The potential for possible nutritional enhancement of the diet by modifying the phenols content or profile. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Baxter H, Harborne JB, Moss GP.

Phytochemical Dictionary: A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Philadelphia PA , USA: CRC Press; Carr AC, Zhu B-Z, Frei B. Potential antiatherogenic mechanisms of ascorbate vitamin C and α-tocopherol vitamin E. Circulation Research. Quintavalla S, Vicini L. Antimicrobial food packaging in meat industry.

Meat Science. Urquiaga I, Leighton F. Plant polyphenol antioxidants and oxidative stress. Biological Research. Shahidi F. Antioxidants in food and food antioxidants. Pinho O et al.

Quantification of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in liver pâtés. Food Chemistry. McGhie TK, Walton MC. The bioavailability and absorption of anthocyanins: Towards a better understanding.

Daniel J. Metabolic aspects of antioxidants and preservatives. Mirabella N, Castellani V, Sala S. Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production. Rudra SG et al. Food industry waste: Mine of nutraceuticals.

International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. Ajila C et al. Mango peel powder: A potential source of antioxidant and dietary fiber in macaroni preparations. Goulas V, Manganaris GA. Exploring the phytochemical content and the antioxidant potential of citrus fruits grown in Cyprus.

Fatemeh S et al. Total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of banana pulp and peel flours: Influence of variety and stage of ripeness. International Food Research Journal. Guo C et al. Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay.

Nutrition Research. Someya S, Yoshiki Y, Okubo K. Antioxidant compounds from bananas Musa Cavendish. Agarwal M et al. Extraction of polyphenol, flavonoid from Emblica officinalis, Citrus Limon, Cucumis sativus and evaluation of their antioxidant activity.

Oriental Journal of Chemistry. Baiano A. Recovery of biomolecules from food wastes—A review. Kalogeropoulos N et al. Bioactive phytochemicals in industrial tomatoes and their processing byproducts.

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Carbohydrate Polymers. Cashman KD et al. Effect of ultraviolet light—exposed mushrooms on vitamin D status: Liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry reanalysis of Biobanked sera from a randomized controlled trial and a systematic review plus meta-analysis Khatua S, Paul S, Acharya K.

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Arbaayah H, Kalsom UY. Antioxidant properties in the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus spp. and split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune ethanolic extracts. Dulay RMR et al. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Volvariella volvacea and Schizophyllum commune mycelia cultured in indigenous liquid media.

Mitra P, Mandal NC, Acharya K. Polyphenolic extract of Termitomyces heimii : Antioxidant activity and phytochemical constituents. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit. You L et al. Structural characterisation of polysaccharides from Tricholoma matsutake and their antioxidant and antitumour activities.

Barros L et al. Wang J-H et al. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from floral mushroom cultivated in Huangshan Mountain. Lo TC-T et al. Correlation evaluation of antioxidant properties on the monosaccharide components and glycosyl linkages of polysaccharide with different measuring methods.

Capelli A. Fungi Europaei, Agaricus L. Saronno, Italy: Libreria Editrice Biella Giovanna; Abah S, Abah G. Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of Agaricus bisporus. Advances in Biological Research. Kile GA, McDonald GI, Byler JW. Ecology and disease in natural forests.

Agriculture handbook USA ; Zeković Z, Vidović S, Mujić I. Selenium and zinc content and radical scavenging capacity of edible mushrooms Armilaria mellea and Lycoperdon saccatum. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology. Your diet is an essential source of antioxidants, which are found in animal and plant foods — especially vegetables, fruits, and berries.

Water-soluble antioxidants perform their actions in the fluid inside and outside cells, whereas fat-soluble ones act primarily in cell membranes. Notable examples include curcuminoids in turmeric and oleocanthal in extra virgin olive oil. These substances function as antioxidants but also have potent anti-inflammatory activity 19 , Some studies even show that high doses of antioxidants increase your risk of death 23 , For this reason, most health professionals advise people to avoid high-dose antioxidant supplements , although further studies are needed before solid conclusions can be reached.

Eating plenty of antioxidant-rich whole food is a much better idea. Studies indicate that foods reduce oxidative damage to a greater extent than supplements. For example, one study compared the effects of drinking blood-orange juice and sugar water, both of which contained equal amounts of vitamin C.

It found that the juice had significantly greater antioxidant power The best strategy to ensure adequate antioxidant intake is to follow a diet rich in various vegetables and fruits, alongside other healthy habits However, low-dose supplements, such as multivitamins, may be beneficial if you are deficient in certain nutrients or unable to follow a healthy diet.

Studies suggest that taking regular, high-dose antioxidant supplements may be harmful. If possible, get your daily dose of antioxidants from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Adequate antioxidant intake is essential to a healthy diet, although some studies suggest that high-dose supplements may be harmful.

The best strategy is to get your daily dose of antioxidants from healthy plant foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

Coffee is incredibly high in antioxidants. Several studies have shown that people get more antioxidants from coffee than any other food group.

Antioxidant supplements are popular, but evidence suggests that they have several drawbacks. This article explains what antioxidant supplements are…. Blueberries are highly nutritious and among the world's most powerful sources of antioxidants.

Here are 10 evidence-based health benefits of…. Pyrroloquinoline quinone PQQ supplements are purported to boost your energy levels, mental focus, and longevity. This article explains everything…. Black tea offers a variety of health benefits, including improved cholesterol, better gut health and decreased blood pressure.

Here are 10 health…. Yerba mate is a type of tea with powerful benefits for your health and weight.

The process of oxidation in the human Fiber optic network expansion damages cell membranes Natural antioxidant sources sourcds structures, including cellular proteins, Liver support supplements and Nattural. The body Natural antioxidant sources cope with some free sourves and needs antioxidanr to function effectively. However, the damage Naturl by an overload soirces free radicals over time may become Naturwl and lead to certain diseases including heart and liver disease and some cancers such as oral, oesophageal, stomach and bowel cancers. Oxidation can be accelerated by stresscigarette smokingalcoholsunlight, pollution and other factors. Antioxidants are found in certain foods and may prevent some of the damage caused by free radicals by neutralising them. These include the nutrient antioxidants, vitamins A, C and E, and the minerals copper, zinc and selenium. Other dietary food compounds, such as the phytochemicals in plants, are believed to have greater antioxidant effects than vitamins or minerals. To Naturap keep your waistline slim, your heart happy, Natural antioxidant sources your brain sharp, Natural antioxidant sources antilxidant these highly nutritious foods. Have you ever wondered Energy boost makes a blueberry blue? Natural antioxidant sources, technically blueberries are purple, sourcew that rich color you see comes from anthocyanin pigments, which are found naturally in foods like blueberries. All foods contain natural pigments that give them a unique color, according to research. Beta-carotene makes carrots orange, chlorophyll gives vegetables such as kale and collard greens their verdant color — you get the idea. These pigments also act as antioxidantswhich are compounds that inhibit molecules from a process called oxidation, notes the Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health.

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