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Oral diabetes medication side effects

Oral diabetes medication side effects

This medicine usually comes with a Guarana for improved athletic recovery information insert. Mediccation names. Although appropriate Hormone balance and energy levels on the relationship medicaion age to effectz effects of metformin have not been performed in effeccts geriatric population, geriatric-specific problems are not expected to limit the usefulness of metformin in the elderly. The response to Metformin differs between individuals. Always talk with a doctor before stopping any prescribed medication to make sure it is safe to do so. Metformin and Pregnancy: Is This Drug Safe? Meglitinides are drugs that also stimulate beta cells to release insulin.

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Pharmacology - Diabetes Medication

Oral diabetes medication side effects -

They are generally well-tolerated, and moderated release formulations are available to reduce side effects. Acarbose blocks the absorption of starchy foods. This can improve diabetes control, but it can also cause gastrointestinal disturbance, especially if you eat a high carbohydrate meal.

Cutting carbs and gradually increasing the dose can reduce side effects. Prandial glucose regulators are generally safe- but they do have some adverse effects.

SGLT2 inhibitors can be beneficial when you are living with diabetes. However, they can cause complications that you should be aware of so that you can take action if you develop symptoms:. The only glitazone currently available in the UK is Pioglitazone.

Members of the group of drugs have different side effects. The previously approved glitazone drug Rosiglitazone was linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. As the risks were more significant than the benefits, it was banned in the UK in These risks are not the same for Pioglitazone.

Side effects include:. It settles over time; you can reduce discomfort by eating bland foods, eating liquid foods like soups and stews and getting up and about after eating. If you are worried about any symptoms, contact your GP, diabetes team or contact accident and emergency.

These lists of side effects are not fully comprehensive. Look at the linked pages for more complete lists of potential complications, and always get medical help if you are concerned.

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Common Side Effects of Diabetes Medication Medications are active substances that can induce positive effects and adverse reactions.

What are side effects? Side effects of diabetes medication Your doctor can prescribe many different diabetes medications. Side effects of common diabetes medications include: Metformin side-effects Metformin is widely used in the UK and internationally.

Gastrointestinal disturbance: GI problems are common in people taking Metformin. They include abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and diarrhoea.

There are three main sulfonylurea drugs used today, glimepiride Amaryl , glipizide Glucotrol and Glucotrol XL , and glyburide Micronase, Glynase, and Diabeta. These drugs are generally taken one to two times a day before meals.

All sulfonylurea drugs have similar effects on blood glucose levels, but they differ in side effects, how often they are taken, and interactions with other drugs.

The most common side effects with sulfonylureas are low blood glucose and weight gain. Rosiglitazone Avandia and pioglitazone Actos are in a group of drugs called thiazolidinediones.

These drugs help insulin work better in the muscle and fat and reduce glucose production in the liver. A benefit of TZDs is that they lower blood glucose without having a high risk for causing low blood glucose. Both drugs in this class can increase the risk for heart failure in some individuals and can also cause fluid retention edema in the legs and feet.

In addition to the commonly used classes discussed above, there are other less commonly used medications that can work well for some people:. Acarbose Precose and miglitol Glyset are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These drugs help the body lower blood glucose levels by blocking the breakdown of starches, such as bread, potatoes, and pasta in the intestine.

By slowing the breakdown of these foods, this slows the rise in blood glucose levels after a meal. These medications should be taken with the first bite of each meal, so they need to be taken multiple times daily.

Based on how these medications work, they commonly cause gastrointestinal side effects including gas and diarrhea.

The BAS colesevelam Welchol is a cholesterol-lowering medication that also reduces blood glucose levels in people with diabetes.

BASs help remove cholesterol from the body, particularly LDL cholesterol, which is often elevated in people with diabetes. The medications reduce LDL cholesterol by binding with bile acids in the digestive system. The body in turn uses cholesterol to replace the bile acids, which lowers cholesterol levels.

The mechanism by which colesevelam lowers glucose levels is not well understood. Because BASs are not absorbed into the bloodstream, they are usually safe for use in people who may not be able to use other medications because of liver problems or other side effects.

Because of the way they work, side effects of BASs can include flatulence and constipation, and they can interact with the absorption of other medications taken at the same time. Bromocriptine Cycloset is a dopamine-2 agonist that is approved by the FDA to lower blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes.

Bromocriptine is taken once daily in the morning. A common side effect is nausea. Meglitinides are drugs that also stimulate beta cells to release insulin. Nateglinide Starlix and repaglinide Prandin are both meglitinides. They are taken before each meal to help lower glucose after you eat.

Because meglitinides stimulate the release of insulin, it is possible to have low blood glucose when taking these medications. Because the drugs listed above act in different ways to lower blood glucose levels, they may be used together to help meet your individualized diabetes goals.

For example, metformin and a DPP-4 inhibitor may be used together shortly after being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes to help keep blood glucose levels at goal. That said, many combinations can be used.

Work with your health care provider to find the combination of medicines that work best for you and your lifestyle and help you meet your health goals. Insulin may also be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Learn more. Breadcrumb Home You Can Manage and Thrive with Diabetes Medication What Are My Options for Type 2 Diabetes Medications?

DPP-4 Inhibitors DPP-4 inhibitors help improve A1C a measure of average blood glucose levels over two to three months without causing hypoglycemia low blood glucose. There are four DPP-4 inhibitors currently on the market in the U.

Official websites diabeted. gov A. gov Oral diabetes medication side effects belongs to an official government organization in the United States. gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Metformin may rarely cause a serious, life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease.

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Contact a doctor right away if you have any symptoms of lactic acidosis. If you have trouble breathing, call or your local emergency number or go to the nearest emergency room. Taking some other medications, including corticosteroids and blood pressure medications, with metformin may increase your risk of lactic acidosis.

See the risk factors section for more information about factors that raise your risk of this complication. Metformin can decrease the levels of vitamin B12 in your body.

In rare cases, this can cause anemia low levels of red blood cells. If you think you may have anemia, make an appointment with your doctor to have your red blood cell levels checked. Your vitamin B12 levels may improve if you stop taking metformin or take vitamin B12 supplements.

Make sure to talk with the doctor who prescribed metformin before you stop taking it. Always talk with a doctor before stopping any prescribed medication to make sure it is safe to do so.

They may gradually lower your dose or prescribe a different medication. However, in rare cases, you may develop hypoglycemia if you combine metformin with:. Metformin crosses the placenta but has not been linked to increased rates of fetal development issues or complications.

A study found no long-term negative effects of metformin use during pregnancy. The authors noted that metformin use may result in a fetus being small for its gestational age and recommended caution if there is a risk that a fetus will not get adequate nutrition.

The authors also noted that metformin use in females with PCOS is associated with a reduced risk of negative outcomes. A review found no significant difference between the rate of serious adverse events in pregnant females who took either a placebo or metformin.

Mild side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were reported more often in those who took metformin. Most of the common side effects of metformin involve your digestive system. You can minimize your chances of developing side effects by:.

If you develop uncomfortable side effects, contact your prescribing doctor. They may recommend changing your dosage, particularly during times of stress.

Several factors can increase your risk of lactic acidosis while taking metformin. If any of these factors affect you, discuss them with your doctor before taking this medication. Your kidneys remove metformin from your body. This raises your risk of lactic acidosis. If you have mild or moderate kidney problems, a doctor may start you on a lower metformin dosage.

If you have severe kidney problems or are age 80 or older, metformin may not be right for you. A doctor will likely test your kidney function before you take metformin and then again each year. If you have diabetes, you are at an increased risk of heart disease. Therefore, managing your diabetes by taking medications such as metformin may help lower your risk of heart problems.

Studies suggest that metformin may reduce the risk of heart-related death and events among people with type 2 diabetes. It may also lower the risk of death from and reoccurrence of heart failure in people who have already experienced it.

However, researchers found these benefits did not occur in people without diabetes. Your liver clears lactic acid from your body.

Severe liver problems could lead to a buildup of lactic acid, which increases your risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin also raises your risk, so taking it is dangerous if you have liver problems.

Drinking alcohol while taking metformin increases your risk of hypoglycemia. It also raises your risk of lactic acidosis because it increases lactic acid levels in your body.

You should not drink large amounts of alcohol while taking metformin. For more information, read about the dangers of drinking with metformin and how alcohol affects diabetes. These procedures can slow the removal of metformin from your body, increasing your risk of lactic acidosis.

Talk with your doctor about the specific time when you should stop taking metformin. Metformin helps lower blood sugar levels by decreasing the amount of glucose produced by the liver and increasing the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin, allowing them to take up more glucose from the blood.

The most serious side effect of metformin is lactic acidosis, a rare but potentially life threatening condition characterized by the buildup of lactic acid in the bloodstream. Metformin may interact with other medications, including those that help manage blood pressure, seizures, heartburn, and cholesterol.

While taking metformin, you should avoid excessive alcohol consumption, as it can increase the risk of lactic acidosis.

Doctors still recommend metformin as a first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes due to its effectiveness, safety profile, and low cost. However, in some cases, doctors may consider other medications if metformin is not well-tolerated or if there are specific contraindications, such as kidney impairment.

You may want to review this article with them. Be sure to ask any questions you may have, such as:. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

VIEW ALL HISTORY. Metformin treats the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Learn more about how this medication works and how to stop taking it here. Metformin is a prescription drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It can also be used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome PCOS. Learn about the relationship between the medication Metformin and hair loss.

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: Oral diabetes medication side effects

Before Using Description and Brand Names Drug information provided by: Merative, Micromedex ® US Brand Name Actos Descriptions Pioglitazone is used with proper diet and exercise to treat high blood sugar levels caused by type 2 diabetes. There are different types, or classes, of medications that work in different ways to lower blood glucose also known as blood sugar levels. Visit our interactive symptom checker Visit our interactive symptom checker Visit the Symptom Checker. Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. You take these medications about half an hour before meals, up to three times a day.
Side Effects of Metformin: What You Should Know

Diet and exercise can do much to improve blood sugar levels. Metformin is a type of biguanide and it is currently the only biguanide available in the United States. It is often the first oral medicine prescribed for someone newly diagnosed with diabetes.

It has the advantage of not causing low blood sugar. Metformin does not cause your pancreas to make insulin, but it helps your body use insulin better. Metformin can cause side effects such as nausea or diarrhea in some people.

Your doctor may prescribe metformin in combination with another oral diabetes medicine. These medicines help your pancreas make insulin. They are inexpensive and have few side effects. There are 3 types of sulfonylureas: glipizide, glimepiride, and glyburide.

Side effects may include weight gain and low level of sodium in the blood. Sulfonylureas can be taken alone or with metformin, pioglitazone a thiazolidinedione , or insulin.

This class of medicines includes rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. These medicines help your body respond better to insulin. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone can be used alone or in combination with other diabetes medicines. People taking rosiglitazone and pioglitazone also need periodic liver tests.

There are two medicines in this group: repaglinide and nateglinide. Both of these lower your blood glucose by prompting the pancreas to release more insulin. These drugs work quickly and do not stay in your system long. So they are a good option if your meal schedule varies or is unpredictable.

They also cause less weight gain than other oral diabetes medicines. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors help control blood sugar levels by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates include starchy foods like potatoes and corn. They also include most grains bread, rice, crackers, cereal and sugary sweets.

The two medicines in this group are acarbose and miglitol. These medicines may cause bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and flatulence gas.

A newer class of diabetes medication, SGLT2, includes three medicines: canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin. These drugs remove extra sugar from your body by sending the sugar out through your kidneys into your urine. They also cause your body to be more sensitive to insulin.

The most common side effects caused by SGLT2 are vaginal yeast infections and urinary tract infections. There are four medicines in this class of drugs. They are sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin.

DPP-4 inhibitors help your pancreas release more insulin after you eat. These medicines also tell your liver to release less glucose. Some side effects from taking DPP-4 inhibitors may include nausea and diarrhea.

This class of drugs pulls double duty. The medicine in this class, colesevelam, lowers cholesterol and reduces blood sugar levels. So it could be a good choice if you have diabetes and high cholesterol levels.

And because these drugs are not absorbed in the blood stream, they may be the best choice for someone who also has liver problems and cannot take some of the other diabetes medicines. Side effects from bile acid sequestrants can include constipation and flatulence gas. Managing your blood sugar level is critical to your overall health.

Often the focus is on keeping blood sugar levels low. But if they are too low, it can put you at risk, too. Talk to you doctor if you are starting a new exercise program or starting a new diet.

He or she may need to adjust your medicine. Last Updated: May 9, This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

A new class of medication, SGLT2 inhibitors, block this action, causing excess glucose to be eliminated in the urine. By increasing the amount of glucose excreted in the urine, people can see improved blood glucose, some weight loss, and small decreases in blood pressure.

Bexagliflozin Brenzavvy , canagliflozin Invokana , dapagliflozin Farxiga , and empagliflozin Jardiance are SGLT2 inhibitors that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration FDA to treat type 2 diabetes.

SGLT2 inhibitors are also known to help improve outcomes in people with heart disease, kidney disease, and heart failure. For this reason, these medications are often used in people with type 2 diabetes who also have heart or kidney problems.

Because they increase glucose levels in the urine, the most common side effects include genital yeast infections. Sulfonylureas have been in use since the s and they stimulate beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin. There are three main sulfonylurea drugs used today, glimepiride Amaryl , glipizide Glucotrol and Glucotrol XL , and glyburide Micronase, Glynase, and Diabeta.

These drugs are generally taken one to two times a day before meals. All sulfonylurea drugs have similar effects on blood glucose levels, but they differ in side effects, how often they are taken, and interactions with other drugs. The most common side effects with sulfonylureas are low blood glucose and weight gain.

Rosiglitazone Avandia and pioglitazone Actos are in a group of drugs called thiazolidinediones. These drugs help insulin work better in the muscle and fat and reduce glucose production in the liver.

A benefit of TZDs is that they lower blood glucose without having a high risk for causing low blood glucose. Both drugs in this class can increase the risk for heart failure in some individuals and can also cause fluid retention edema in the legs and feet.

In addition to the commonly used classes discussed above, there are other less commonly used medications that can work well for some people:. Acarbose Precose and miglitol Glyset are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

These drugs help the body lower blood glucose levels by blocking the breakdown of starches, such as bread, potatoes, and pasta in the intestine. By slowing the breakdown of these foods, this slows the rise in blood glucose levels after a meal.

These medications should be taken with the first bite of each meal, so they need to be taken multiple times daily. Based on how these medications work, they commonly cause gastrointestinal side effects including gas and diarrhea.

The BAS colesevelam Welchol is a cholesterol-lowering medication that also reduces blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. BASs help remove cholesterol from the body, particularly LDL cholesterol, which is often elevated in people with diabetes.

The medications reduce LDL cholesterol by binding with bile acids in the digestive system. The body in turn uses cholesterol to replace the bile acids, which lowers cholesterol levels. The mechanism by which colesevelam lowers glucose levels is not well understood.

Because BASs are not absorbed into the bloodstream, they are usually safe for use in people who may not be able to use other medications because of liver problems or other side effects. Because of the way they work, side effects of BASs can include flatulence and constipation, and they can interact with the absorption of other medications taken at the same time.

Bromocriptine Cycloset is a dopamine-2 agonist that is approved by the FDA to lower blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes. Bromocriptine is taken once daily in the morning. A common side effect is nausea. Meglitinides are drugs that also stimulate beta cells to release insulin.

Nateglinide Starlix and repaglinide Prandin are both meglitinides. They are taken before each meal to help lower glucose after you eat. Because meglitinides stimulate the release of insulin, it is possible to have low blood glucose when taking these medications. Because the drugs listed above act in different ways to lower blood glucose levels, they may be used together to help meet your individualized diabetes goals.

For example, metformin and a DPP-4 inhibitor may be used together shortly after being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes to help keep blood glucose levels at goal.

What Are My Options for Type 2 Diabetes Medications?

Also, tell your doctor if you are over 65 years old and if you have ever had a heart attack; stroke; diabetic ketoacidosis blood sugar that is high enough to cause severe symptoms and requires emergency medical treatment ; a coma; or heart or liver disease.

Taking certain other medications with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Tell your doctor if you are taking acetazolamide Diamox , dichlorphenamide Keveyis , methazolamide, topiramate Topamax, in Qsymia , or zonisamide Zonegran.

Tell your doctor if you have recently had any of the following conditions, or if you develop them during treatment: serious infection; severe diarrhea, vomiting, or fever; or if you drink much less fluid than usual for any reason.

You may have to stop taking metformin until you recover. If you are having surgery, including dental surgery, or any major medical procedure, tell the doctor that you are taking metformin.

Also, tell your doctor if you plan to have any x-ray procedure in which dye is injected, especially if you drink or have ever drunk large amounts of alcohol or have or have had liver disease or heart failure. You may need to stop taking metformin before the procedure and wait 48 hours to restart treatment.

Your doctor will tell you exactly when you should stop taking metformin and when you should start taking it again. If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking metformin and call your doctor immediately: extreme tiredness, weakness, or discomfort; nausea; vomiting; stomach pain; decreased appetite; deep and rapid breathing or shortness of breath; dizziness; lightheadedness; fast or slow heartbeat; flushing of the skin; muscle pain; or feeling cold, especially in your hands or feet.

Tell your doctor if you regularly drink alcohol or sometimes drink large amounts of alcohol in a short time binge drinking. Drinking alcohol increases your risk of developing lactic acidosis or may cause a decrease in blood sugar.

Ask your doctor how much alcohol is safe to drink while you are taking metformin. Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.

Your doctor will order certain tests before and during treatment to check how well your kidneys are working and your body's response to metformin. Talk to your doctor about the risk s of taking metformin. Metformin is used alone or with other medications, including insulin, to treat type 2 diabetes condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood.

Metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. Metformin helps to control the amount of glucose sugar in your blood. It decreases the amount of glucose you absorb from your food and the amount of glucose made by your liver.

Metformin also increases your body's response to insulin, a natural substance that controls the amount of glucose in the blood.

Metformin is not used to treat type 1 diabetes condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood.

Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. Taking medication s , making lifestyle changes e. This therapy may also decrease your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes-related complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage numb, cold legs or feet; decreased sexual ability in men and women , eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease.

Your doctor and other healthcare providers will talk to you about the best way to manage your diabetes. Metformin comes as a liquid, a tablet, and an extended-release long-acting tablet to take by mouth.

The liquid is usually taken with meals one or two times a day. The regular tablet is usually taken with meals two or three times a day. The extended-release tablet is usually taken once daily with the evening meal. To help you remember to take metformin, take it around the same time s every day.

Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take metformin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Your doctor may start you on a low dose of metformin and gradually increase your dose not more often than once every 1—2 weeks. You will need to monitor your blood sugar carefully so your doctor will be able to tell how well metformin is working. Metformin controls diabetes but does not cure it.

Continue to take metformin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking metformin without talking to your doctor. This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. Be sure to follow all exercise and dietary recommendations made by your doctor or dietitian.

It is important to eat a healthful diet. Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

Metformin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication. Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from light, excess heat, and moisture not in the bathroom.

Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program.

It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily.

To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location — one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach. In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at There are a number of different tablets in this family.

They work mainly by stimulating the cells in the pancreas to make more insulin. They also help insulin to work more effectively in the body. This tablet belongs to a family of medication called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

This tablet slows down starchy food absorption after a meal. This means your blood sugar levels won't rise as fast. These tablets belong to a family of medications called prandial glucose regulators. You take these medications about half an hour before meals, up to three times a day.

They could cause low blood sugar levels , also called hypoglycaemia. They belong to a family of medication called thiazolidinediones or glitazones.

These tablets help your body use natural insulin better and protect the cells in the pancreas so you can produce insulin for longer. Usually taken once or twice a day with or without food. They are part of a family of medication called GLP-1 analogues incretin mimetics.

This injection increases hormones called 'incretins', which help you make more insulin, reduce the amount of sugar the liver produces and slow digestion speed.

They also reduce appetite. You may have a daily injection, twice daily or once weekly. There are different brands available. DPP-4 inhibitors work by blocking the action of DPP-4, an enzyme that destroys the hormone, incretin.

This medication helps you lower your bad cholesterol. Statins are a commonly used medication and are often prescribed for people with diabetes to help them manage their condition. This is because having diabetes increases the risk of heart diseases, such as heart attack and stroke.

Because medicines can affect you in different ways, your healthcare team will speak to you about what's best and discuss any side effects. If you need more information, you could also speak to a pharmacist or check the patient information leaflet that comes with the medication.

As well as helping to manage blood sugar levels, some of these medications may have other benefits like protecting your heart or kidneys or helping with weight loss.

Ask your healthcare team why they are prescribing you a certain medication. Side effects will depend on the type of diabetes medication you are taking, but they could include:.

You should always check the patient information leaflet supplied with your medication to see a more detailed list of the side effects you might experience. If do you experience any severe side effects or reactions, make sure you seek medical attention straight away.

In England, you'll need a medical exemption certificate to claim your free prescription unless you're 60 or over. Find out more about free prescriptions.

Metformin: MedlinePlus Drug Information

To help you remember to take metformin, take it around the same time s every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take metformin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Your doctor may start you on a low dose of metformin and gradually increase your dose not more often than once every 1—2 weeks. You will need to monitor your blood sugar carefully so your doctor will be able to tell how well metformin is working. Metformin controls diabetes but does not cure it.

Continue to take metformin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking metformin without talking to your doctor. This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Be sure to follow all exercise and dietary recommendations made by your doctor or dietitian. It is important to eat a healthful diet. Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule.

Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. Metformin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication. Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from light, excess heat, and moisture not in the bathroom.

Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program.

It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily.

To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location — one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach.

In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, immediately call emergency services at Your doctor will tell you how to check your response to this medication by measuring your blood sugar levels at home.

Follow these instructions carefully. If you are taking the extended-release tablets, you may notice something that looks like a tablet in your stool.

This is just the empty tablet shell, and this does not mean that you did not get your complete dose of medication. You should always wear a diabetic identification bracelet to be sure you get proper treatment in an emergency. Do not let anyone else take your medication.

Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription. It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription over-the-counter medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements.

You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies. Generic alternatives may be available. Acarbose blocks the absorption of starchy foods. This can improve diabetes control, but it can also cause gastrointestinal disturbance, especially if you eat a high carbohydrate meal.

Cutting carbs and gradually increasing the dose can reduce side effects. Prandial glucose regulators are generally safe- but they do have some adverse effects. SGLT2 inhibitors can be beneficial when you are living with diabetes. However, they can cause complications that you should be aware of so that you can take action if you develop symptoms:.

The only glitazone currently available in the UK is Pioglitazone. Members of the group of drugs have different side effects.

The previously approved glitazone drug Rosiglitazone was linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

As the risks were more significant than the benefits, it was banned in the UK in These risks are not the same for Pioglitazone. Side effects include:. It settles over time; you can reduce discomfort by eating bland foods, eating liquid foods like soups and stews and getting up and about after eating.

If you are worried about any symptoms, contact your GP, diabetes team or contact accident and emergency. These lists of side effects are not fully comprehensive.

Look at the linked pages for more complete lists of potential complications, and always get medical help if you are concerned. Alternatively, just fill in this form and someone will get in touch with you promptly. By using this form, you are consenting to the storage and handling of the data contained in the form by our team.

First name. Last name. Your email address. Your phone number. The most common side effect with these medications is nausea and vomiting, which is more common when starting or increasing the dose.

Glucose in the bloodstream passes through the kidneys where it can either be excreted in the urine or reabsorbed back into the blood. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 SGLT2 works in the kidney to reabsorb glucose. A new class of medication, SGLT2 inhibitors, block this action, causing excess glucose to be eliminated in the urine.

By increasing the amount of glucose excreted in the urine, people can see improved blood glucose, some weight loss, and small decreases in blood pressure. Bexagliflozin Brenzavvy , canagliflozin Invokana , dapagliflozin Farxiga , and empagliflozin Jardiance are SGLT2 inhibitors that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration FDA to treat type 2 diabetes.

SGLT2 inhibitors are also known to help improve outcomes in people with heart disease, kidney disease, and heart failure. For this reason, these medications are often used in people with type 2 diabetes who also have heart or kidney problems. Because they increase glucose levels in the urine, the most common side effects include genital yeast infections.

Sulfonylureas have been in use since the s and they stimulate beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin. There are three main sulfonylurea drugs used today, glimepiride Amaryl , glipizide Glucotrol and Glucotrol XL , and glyburide Micronase, Glynase, and Diabeta.

These drugs are generally taken one to two times a day before meals. All sulfonylurea drugs have similar effects on blood glucose levels, but they differ in side effects, how often they are taken, and interactions with other drugs.

The most common side effects with sulfonylureas are low blood glucose and weight gain. Rosiglitazone Avandia and pioglitazone Actos are in a group of drugs called thiazolidinediones. These drugs help insulin work better in the muscle and fat and reduce glucose production in the liver. A benefit of TZDs is that they lower blood glucose without having a high risk for causing low blood glucose.

Both drugs in this class can increase the risk for heart failure in some individuals and can also cause fluid retention edema in the legs and feet.

In addition to the commonly used classes discussed above, there are other less commonly used medications that can work well for some people:. Acarbose Precose and miglitol Glyset are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These drugs help the body lower blood glucose levels by blocking the breakdown of starches, such as bread, potatoes, and pasta in the intestine.

By slowing the breakdown of these foods, this slows the rise in blood glucose levels after a meal. These medications should be taken with the first bite of each meal, so they need to be taken multiple times daily.

Based on how these medications work, they commonly cause gastrointestinal side effects including gas and diarrhea.

Oral diabetes medication side effects

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