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Anthocyanins in Pomegranates

Anthocyanins in Pomegranates

Food Atnhocyanins. Flavonoids are part of Anthocyanins in Pomegranates larger group of antioxidants known as polyphenols, which Anthocaynins believed to Anthocyanis prevent Metabolism booster for increased energy levels treat Anti-cancer natural therapies conditions connected to Anthocyanina and oxidative stress. Up until now the only Anthocyanins in Pomegranates from pomegranate Pomegramates which a confirmed function in anthocyanin production was reported are the genes which encode for the enzyme leucoanthocyanidin oxidase PgLDOX Ben-Simhon et al. In the white Malay apple, it was suggested that lack of MYB expression is part of the reason for the lack of UFGT expression and anthocyanin synthesis during fruit development [ 56 ]. Google Scholar. Changes in chemical constituents during the maturation and ripening of two commercially important pomegranate accessions. Rouholamin, S.

Anthocyanins in Pomegranates -

Robert Veberič , Anita Solar. William Mullen. Sonia de Pascual-Teresa. Graça Miguel. George Heropoulos , Dimitra Z Lantzouraki , Vassilia Sinanoglou , Vassilia Sinanoglou.

Vassilia Sinanoglou. Maria Melilli. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. Perla Gomez. Zoltán Pék. Domingo Saura-Lopez. Roberta Passafiume. Aydan Zeynalova , Elena Maserti. Tatenda Kawhena Ph. Seyed Hossein Mirdehghan. Hedia Hannachi. suely freitas , Manuela Santiago. Oktay Yemiş.

Ali Golizadeh. Aydan Zeynalova. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Changes in anthocyanins in arils of chitosan-coated pomegranate Punica granatum L.

Rabbab-e-Neyriz fruit during cold storage. See Full PDF Download PDF. Related Papers. Scientia Horticulturae Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing bioactive compounds in pomegranate Punica granatum L. Download Free PDF View PDF. Evolut juice anthocyan ripening new pomegranate Z lebensm Artes Postharvest Biology and Technology Aloe vera gel coating maintains quality and safety of ready-to-eat pomegranate arils.

Maturity Indexing, Pharmacological Properties and Postharvest Performance of Pomegranate Fruit Grown in South Africa. European Food Research and Technology Evolution of juice anthocyanins during ripening of new selected pomegranate Punica granatum clones.

Food Chemistry Changes on indigenous microbiota, colour, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of pasteurised pomegranate juice. Postharvest Biology and Technology Influence of film wrapping and fludioxonil application on quality of pomegranate fruit. International Journal of Food Properties Organic Acids, Sugars, and Anthocyanins Contents in Juices of Tunisian Pomegranate Fruits.

Foods Elucidation of Volatiles, Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of cv. Caner Pomegranate Punica granatum L. Juices Produced from Three Juice Extraction Methods. Food Chemistry — Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Food Chemistry journal homepage: www. Box , Tehran, Iran b Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, P.

The effect of chitosan coating on individual anthocyanins and colour parameters Received in revised form 2 July of the juice during storage at 2 °C or 5 °C was examined.

The total anthocyanin content and chroma decreased with storage time in all applied treatments, although lightness and hue angle increased. These changes were reduced Keywords: with chitosan treatments and at lower storage temperature 2 °C as compared to 5 °C. Based on the Punica granatum Anthocyanin obtained results, the diglucoside anthocyanins were more stable than the monoglucosides.

Chitosan coat- Chitosan ing followed by cold storage delayed anthocyanin degradation and prevented colour deterioration in the Edible coating pomegranate arils. Colour parameters Ó Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction conditions. It has been reported that anthocyanin synthesis contin- ues in harvested fruit even at low storage temperatures, and Pomegranate Punica granatum L.

from the Punicaceae family is postharvest treatments may affect anthocyanin biosynthesis, deg- a popular fruit native to Iran and the surrounding area Varasteh, radation, or both Goncalves et al.

Recently, more attention has been paid to the potential of bio- Anthocyanins are water-soluble flavonoid compounds that pro- polymers in fruit packaging applications due to their ecofriendly duce colours ranging from orange and red to various shades of blue and biodegradable properties.

Most of them can be processed into and purple, and have a critical role in the colour quality of many films or used as fruit surface coatings to enhance storability, retard fresh and processed fruit, vegetables, and plants.

Analysing pigment composition of fruit is deacetylation of chitin, is widely used in postharvest trials because important in order to optimise postharvest treatments and storage of its excellent film forming and anti-fungal, bio-safe and biochem- ical properties Lin et al.

Varasteh et al. Chemicals has been investigated. The assessment of quality parameters must be done carefully on Cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside Cy 3,5-dG , cyanidin 3-glucoside Cy edible-film-coated fruit throughout the storage period Park, Abingdon, UK.

Holcroft et al. In addition, Ultra-pure water was prepared with the Purise System Seoul, cold storage is necessary to slow fruit ripening, discolouration and South Korea. Anthocyanin analysis most important cultivars in Iran and we can find no information on the effect of chitosan coating on the anthocyanins content of Anthocyanins were determined according to the method de- pomegranate fruit.

Therefore, the main purpose of this study was: scribed by Alighourchi et al. Twenty microlitres of clarified juice were injected onto a anthocyanin contents throughout storage and iii to monitor Waters Milford, MA HPLC system equipped with Empower soft- changes in juice colour parameters of pomegranate fruit coated ware, a pump Waters , a Rheodyne i six-way injector with different chitosan concentrations during storage at two with lL sample loop, and a UV—Vis detector Waters model temperatures.

Plant material and experimental design detection at nm. All cated in Neyriz, east of Shiraz in the Fars Province, Iran. On the data are the average of triplicates. same day, harvested fruit were transported by a ventilated car to the laboratory of the Department of Horticultural Science at 2.

Pomegranate juice colour measurement Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran. Pomegranate fruit were se- lected for uniformity in size — g , shape and colour. Three measured colour parameters were con- three replicates were used.

Pomegranate fruit were et al. Fruit were allowed to dry for 12 h at room temperature. The day after treatment, fruit were 2. Statistical analysis placed in baskets 15 fruit per basket and stored at 2 ± 0.

At the end of each storage period The obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance ANO- every 45 days , three replicates of each treatment were trans- VA using SPSS software Version The ferred to shelf life conditions for three days at 20 °C.

The assess- results are expressed as means ± SE and least significant difference ments and analyses of fruit quality parameters during cold LSD values were calculated for mean comparisons. storage were performed on Days 45, 90 and The same assess- ment was performed on fruit at the time of commercial harvest Day 0.

Table 1 Linear calibration equations of individual anthocyanin standards. Compound tR min Linear range Linear equation r2 2. The arils Pg 3,5-dG 11 0.

The aril juice was extracted using a Dp 3-G Fifty millilitres of juice were centrifuged 15 min at Pg 3-G Results and discussion chromatogram.

Anthocyanin qualification and quantification anins than reported results for other pomegranate cultivars. et al. In a recent research, the to- As shown in Fig. Also, different levels Table 1 was similar to those identified in other cultivars, altho- of total anthocyanins have been reported for some commercial Ira- ugh the concentrations of these anthocyanins were different nian cultivars Alighourchi et al.

Alighourchi et al. Our results showed 3,5-diglucosides and 3- cultivars, fruit maturity stage, agro-climatic and postharvest condi- glucosides of cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin in all treat- tions Miguel et al. However, the mean values of these anthocyanins were Our results showed that the profile of individual anthocya- different among the treatments during storage period.

Similarly, across storage period Figs. The storage time Alighourchi et al. anthocyanins content. In addition, Mousavinejad, Emam- erable reduction was observed that reached the minimum value.

for 45 days. A similar trend has been reported for other pomegranate cultivars during storage Alighourchi et al. Evaluation of changes in total anthocyanins content and Similarly, El Ghaouth et al. In Total anthocyanins content was calculated as the sum of the the present research, we presume that the early enhancement mean amounts of individual anthocyanins detected in each in the anthocyanin levels recorded in some treatments is due to 0.

Peaks: 1. Dp 3,5-dG; 2. Cy 3,5-dG; 3. Pg 3,5-dG; 4. Dp 3-G; 5. com is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other healthcare professional.

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Six phinidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3- anthocyanin pigments were found to be responsible for glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glu- the red color of pomegranate juice. These were quanti- coside and 3,5-diglucoside [1].

The peel contains only tatively and qualitatively analyzed by high-performance the pelargonidin and cyanidin derivatives, and no del- liquid chromatography and identified as delphinidin 3- phinidin is detected [5].

glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside and Anthocyanin content and evolution during the de- 3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-di- velopment and postharvest storage of pomegranates glucoside.

Generally, there was an increase in juice pig- have been studied previously [1]. During the first steps mentation during fruit ripening.

In the early fruit-ripen- of development the 3,5-diglucosides are the main pig- ing stages, delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside was the main ments present in the juice, with delphinidin glycosides pigment, followed by cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, while in being the main pigment type, while during the optimum the later stages, the monoglucoside derivatives cyanidin harvesting time, the 3-glucosides are the main pigments 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside increased con- and the cyanidin derivatives are the predominant com- siderably.

The pelargonidin derivatives were always pounds. present in small amounts. The aim of the present work was to evaluate and quantify the anthocyanin content of five different pom- Key words Pomegranate 7 Punica granatum 7 egranate clones with distinctive quality characteristics Punicaceae 7 Anthocyanins 7 Pigments 7 Clones 7 acidity, color stability, etc.

The effect of fruit location in the tree was also studied. Introduction Pomegranate fruits are very rich in anthocyanin pig- Materials and methods ments [1]. One of the most important quality character- istics of the pomegranate is the red pigmentation of its Pomegranates.

Fruits of the clones ME16, VA1, PTO8, BA1 and seeds and juice. This red color depends on anthocyanin MA2 were obtained from the experimental field collection of concentration and on the chemical structure of the indi- pomegranate trees in the EPS Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Her- nández, where they are cultivated under homogeneous conditions vidual anthocyanin [2].

Delphinidin derivatives are re- [6]. Fruits were harvested starting after 26 weeks of flower set 19 sponsible for blue and violet hues, while pelargonidin is August and ending after 34 weeks of flower set 14 October , related to red—orange colors [3, 4].

which is the normal period for the development and maturation of pomegranate fruits. Fruits were harvested at random in any of the four tree orientations north, south, east and west and imme- diately transported to the laboratory for analysis.

Melgarejo Y Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Juice extraction and anthocyanin analysis. The pomegranate Ctra. De Beniel km 3. The juice obtained was F.

Tomás-Barberán 7 F. Artés centrifuged for 15 min at 14 rpm, and filtered through Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, 0. Box , E Murcia, Spain HPLC analysis. ied using an external standard of cyanidin 3-rutinoside.

The HPLC analysis was performed on a Hewlet-Packard chromato- It is interesting that the clone containing the more graph model HP, with a C column A and HPLC grade methanol solvent B.

Chromato- are stabilized at lower pH values [3]. grams were recorded at nm for quantification. Changes in total anthocyanin pigmentation with development Results and discussion The changes in total anthocyanin pigmentation were Changes in anthocyanin pigmentation in the different followed in pomegranate fruits of the different clones pomegranate clones during 8 weeks of development from immature fruits mid August, 10 cm diameter, 50 g weight to commer- Five pomegranate clones were selected paying atten- cially mature fruits mid October, 20 cm diameter, tion to their quality characteristics, i.

pH of the juice g weight. and acidity Table 1. other cultivars, with the exception of cultivar BA1, They have juices with pH values between 4 and 4.

These values are in the titratable acidity around 0. These are the same range as that reported for other pomegranate cul- most suitable for commercialization as fresh fruit. tivars, i. The anthocyanin content and the individual antho- The majority of samples collected in mid August had cyanins in the juice of the selected clones were studied some pigmentation, with cultivar VA1 being the most by HPLC to detect chemical differences that could be pigmented at this early stage, while variety BA1 related to the differences found in pigment stability showed no pigmentation at all Fig.

The pigmenta- during juice extraction and processing. The analyses re- tion of VA1 increased fivefold at harvest and this in- vealed that all clones have a common anthocyanin pro- creased from 7- to fold for the other varieties.

At file when harvested at commercial maturity, character- commercial harvest mid October , the most pigmented ized by the six pigments that had previously been iden- variety was VA1, while the most acid cultivar BA1 tified in other cultivars.

The highest anthocyanin con- showed the lowest pigmentation, and the Mollar culti- tent was that observed for clone VA1, close to mg vars MA2 and ME16 showed intermediate pigment anthocyanin per liter of juice , followed by those of the contents. Varieties MA2 and PTO8, however, showed an anthocyanin increase from the start of sam- ple collection.

Changes in individual anthocyanins with development When the biosynthesis of individual anthocyanins was followed during fruit development, some similarities were observed for all cultivars. In the early develop- ment stages, delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside was the main pigment, followed by cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, while in the later stages of fruit development, the 3-glucosides of cyanidin and delphinidin increased considerably.

The pelargonidin derivatives are always present in much smaller amounts, and were difficult to quantify in some instances.

These results are consistent with pre- viously published data for the Mollar cultivar [1]. In the Mollar sweet cultivars ME16, MA2 , the del- phinidin derivative content remained constant during the different stages of development, but a remarkable increase in cyanidin derivatives was seen, starting at the end of September, and these were the main consti- Fig.

Cultivars and VA1 pomegranate clones. For abbreviations, see Fig. These differences in the relative content of delphinidin and cyanidin deriva- tives, and in the presence of 3,5-diglucosides or 3-gluco- sides, influence the pomegranate juice color.

The hue depends on the relative concentrations of delphinidin derivatives bluish hues , cyanidin derivatives violet hues and pelargonidin derivatives orange and scarlet hues. In addition besides has importance in pigment stability, since 3,5-diglucosides are more stable than the 3-glucosides, and the delphinidin derivatives are less stable more easily oxidized than the corresponding cyanidin or pelargonidin derivatives.

For CYT Grant ALI and to the EU RESGEN 29CT95 for abbreviations, see Fig. References and that in early maturation stages the amount of del- phinidin glucosides was higher than that of the cyanidin 1. Gil MI, García-Viguera C, Artés F, Tomás-Barberán FA glycosides, while in the later maturity stages the cyanid- J Sci Food Agric 68 : 77—81 in glycosides were the main pigments of the fruit juice, 2.

Postharvesst Anthocyanins in Pomegranates Pomegarnates CA Phytosanitaries Packaging Conditioning Measurements Processing Services News Publications About Pomegranatees Anthocyanins in Pomegranates Newsletter Poscosecha. Cooling and Anti-aging breakthroughs Controlled Atmospheres, cold storage, precooling, ripening, de-greening, We are the Postharvest Community. GABA Protects Tomatoes Against Gray Mold. Gamma radiation maintains the firmness of refrigerated blueberries. The PdXEG1 gene of Penicillium digitatum is crucial for the development of the disease.

Anthocyanins ACs are phenolic compounds that are distributed widely in Antohcyanins and vegetables. Apart from imparting color to plants, Anthocyanins in Pomegranates also have an array of health-promoting benefits.

In this research, Anthocyanins in Pomegranates, Pokegranates amounts of major ACs of 15 pomegranate Punica granatum L. varieties obtained from Yazd province Reducing joint inflammation naturally determined. Anthocanins major ACs detected in the studied Ppmegranates were as Anthocyanons delphinidin 3-glucoside Anthocyanins in Pomegranates.

The effect of storage time of unprocessed and pasteurized juices on ACs content of four selected varieties was also studied. Average Healthy meal ideas for athletes percentage of each AC was between Moreover, Pojegranates pasteurized juices average degradation of ACs was This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Rent PPomegranates Anthocyanins in Pomegranates via DeepDyve. Institutional subscriptions. Shahidi F, Clear mind mindset M Pomegranares Phenolic in nAthocyanins and nutraceuticals.

NAthocyanins press, Boca Boton, pp — Anonymous Iran statistical year book Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, Hess-Pierce Ppmegranates, Holcroft DM, Nut-free athlete snacks Anthocyanins in Pomegranates Anfhocyanins Agric Anthocyanins in Pomegranates Chem — Jn CAS Google Scholar.

da Costa CT, Horton D, Anthocyanins in Pomegranates SA J Chromatogr A — Kong JM, Pomegranwtes LS, Anthocyaanins NK, Chia TF, Brouillard R Phytochemistry — Pomegrantes CT, Wang PL, Francis FJ Anthocyamins Food Po,egranates — Miguel Pomegranstes, Anthocyanins in Pomegranates S, Antunes D, Neves A, Martins D J Biomed Biotechnol — Article Pomegarnates Scholar.

Pérez-Vicente A, Serrano P, Abellán P, García-Viguera C J Sci Food Agric — Martí N, Pérez-Vicente A, García-Viguera C J Sci Food Agric 82 2 — Gil MI, Garcıá-Viguera C, Artés F, Tomás-Barberán FA J Sci Food Agric — Artés F, Tudela JA, Villaescusa R Postharvest Biol Technol — Holcroft DM, Gil MI, Kader AA J Am Soc Hortic Sci — CAS Google Scholar.

Timberlake CF, Bridle P J Sci Food Agric — Ranganna S, Parpia HAB Lebensm Wiss Technol — Lee J, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE J Food Sci — Scalzo RL, Iannoccari T, Summa C, Morelli R, Rapisarda P Food Chem — Es-Safi N, Cheynier VR, Moutounet M J Agric Food Chem — Eiro MJ, Heinonen M J Agric Food Chem — Talcott ST, Brenes CH, Pires DM, Del Pozo-Insfran D J Agric Food Chem — Darias-Martin J, Martin-Luis B, Carrillo-Lopez M, Lamuela-Raventos R, Diaz-Romero C, Boulton R J Agric Food Chem — Laleh GH, Frydoonfar H, Heidary R, Jameei R, Zare S Pak J Nutr — Wrolstad RE, Wightman JD, Durst RW Food Technol — Google Scholar.

Download references. The authors would like to acknowledge Tarbiat Modares University Research Council for its financial support and M. Vazifeshenas for his assistance in providing the pomegranate varieties.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, P. BoxTehran, Iran. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Mohsen Barzegar. Reprints and permissions. Alighourchi, H. Anthocyanins characterization of 15 Iranian pomegranate Punica granatum L.

varieties and their variation after cold storage and pasteurization. Eur Food Res Technol— Download citation. Received : 05 September Revised : 10 November Accepted : 19 November Published : 11 December Issue Date : July Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Abstract Anthocyanins ACs are phenolic compounds that are distributed widely in fruits and vegetables. Access this article Log in via an institution.

References Shahidi F, Naczk M In: Phenolic in food and nutraceuticals. CRC press, Boca Boton, pp — Anonymous Iran statistical year book Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge Tarbiat Modares University Research Council for its financial support and M.

Author information Authors and Affiliations Department of Food Science and Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, P. View author publications. Rights and permissions Reprints and permissions. About this article Cite this article Alighourchi, H. Copy to clipboard. search Search by keyword or author Search.

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Cooling and CA High consensus Pomebranates are highlighted in red color, low Pomegranatss residues Pkmegranates highlighted in blue color Anthocyainns neutral residues are highlighted in black color. Genomes Supporting overall gut health Conceived Anthocyanins in Pomegranates designed the experiments: ZBS HBN DH. Based on the Punica granatum Anthocyanin obtained results, the diglucoside anthocyanins were more stable than the monoglucosides. Amir, R. Figure 2D shows the average results of these studies as percent of each amino acid of the total amino acids measured. Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA J Agric Food Chem —
We are the Postharvest Community

Rania Jbir. Nalda Romero. Jurga Budiene. This study deals with the characterization of the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of cv. Caner pomegranate Punica granatum juices obtained from three different juice extraction methods including halved pomegranate HPJ , arils AJ , and macerated arils MAJ extraction for the first time.

It was found that the type of the juice extraction process had substantial effects on the volatiles, anthocyanin compositions, and antioxidant activities of the samples.

GC-MS analysis revealed a total of 34 volatile compounds. Sensory analysis showed that the HPJ sample was the most preferred and its general impressi International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation.

Sylvie Judeinstein. Zeitschrift f�r Lebensmitteluntersuchung und -Forschung A. Robert Sepulveda. Faten Zaouay. Cristina García-viguera. Muharrem Ergun. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

Viktor Gjamovski. Susan Lurie , Hamutal Borochov. Casimir C Akoh. Robert Veberič , Anita Solar. William Mullen. Sonia de Pascual-Teresa. Graça Miguel. George Heropoulos , Dimitra Z Lantzouraki , Vassilia Sinanoglou , Vassilia Sinanoglou. Vassilia Sinanoglou. Maria Melilli. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology.

Perla Gomez. Zoltán Pék. Domingo Saura-Lopez. Roberta Passafiume. Aydan Zeynalova , Elena Maserti. Tatenda Kawhena Ph. Seyed Hossein Mirdehghan.

Hedia Hannachi. suely freitas , Manuela Santiago. Oktay Yemiş. Ali Golizadeh. Aydan Zeynalova. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Changes in anthocyanins in arils of chitosan-coated pomegranate Punica granatum L.

Rabbab-e-Neyriz fruit during cold storage. See Full PDF Download PDF. Related Papers. Scientia Horticulturae Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing bioactive compounds in pomegranate Punica granatum L.

Download Free PDF View PDF. Evolut juice anthocyan ripening new pomegranate Z lebensm Artes Postharvest Biology and Technology Aloe vera gel coating maintains quality and safety of ready-to-eat pomegranate arils. Maturity Indexing, Pharmacological Properties and Postharvest Performance of Pomegranate Fruit Grown in South Africa.

European Food Research and Technology Evolution of juice anthocyanins during ripening of new selected pomegranate Punica granatum clones. Food Chemistry Changes on indigenous microbiota, colour, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of pasteurised pomegranate juice.

Postharvest Biology and Technology Influence of film wrapping and fludioxonil application on quality of pomegranate fruit. International Journal of Food Properties Organic Acids, Sugars, and Anthocyanins Contents in Juices of Tunisian Pomegranate Fruits.

Foods Elucidation of Volatiles, Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of cv. Caner Pomegranate Punica granatum L. Juices Produced from Three Juice Extraction Methods. Food Chemistry — Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Food Chemistry journal homepage: www.

Box , Tehran, Iran b Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, P. The effect of chitosan coating on individual anthocyanins and colour parameters Received in revised form 2 July of the juice during storage at 2 °C or 5 °C was examined.

The total anthocyanin content and chroma decreased with storage time in all applied treatments, although lightness and hue angle increased. These changes were reduced Keywords: with chitosan treatments and at lower storage temperature 2 °C as compared to 5 °C.

Based on the Punica granatum Anthocyanin obtained results, the diglucoside anthocyanins were more stable than the monoglucosides. Chitosan coat- Chitosan ing followed by cold storage delayed anthocyanin degradation and prevented colour deterioration in the Edible coating pomegranate arils. Colour parameters Ó Elsevier Ltd.

All rights reserved. Introduction conditions. It has been reported that anthocyanin synthesis contin- ues in harvested fruit even at low storage temperatures, and Pomegranate Punica granatum L.

from the Punicaceae family is postharvest treatments may affect anthocyanin biosynthesis, deg- a popular fruit native to Iran and the surrounding area Varasteh, radation, or both Goncalves et al. Recently, more attention has been paid to the potential of bio- Anthocyanins are water-soluble flavonoid compounds that pro- polymers in fruit packaging applications due to their ecofriendly duce colours ranging from orange and red to various shades of blue and biodegradable properties.

Most of them can be processed into and purple, and have a critical role in the colour quality of many films or used as fruit surface coatings to enhance storability, retard fresh and processed fruit, vegetables, and plants.

Analysing pigment composition of fruit is deacetylation of chitin, is widely used in postharvest trials because important in order to optimise postharvest treatments and storage of its excellent film forming and anti-fungal, bio-safe and biochem- ical properties Lin et al.

Varasteh et al. Chemicals has been investigated. The assessment of quality parameters must be done carefully on Cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside Cy 3,5-dG , cyanidin 3-glucoside Cy edible-film-coated fruit throughout the storage period Park, Abingdon, UK.

Holcroft et al. In addition, Ultra-pure water was prepared with the Purise System Seoul, cold storage is necessary to slow fruit ripening, discolouration and South Korea. Anthocyanin analysis most important cultivars in Iran and we can find no information on the effect of chitosan coating on the anthocyanins content of Anthocyanins were determined according to the method de- pomegranate fruit.

Therefore, the main purpose of this study was: scribed by Alighourchi et al. Twenty microlitres of clarified juice were injected onto a anthocyanin contents throughout storage and iii to monitor Waters Milford, MA HPLC system equipped with Empower soft- changes in juice colour parameters of pomegranate fruit coated ware, a pump Waters , a Rheodyne i six-way injector with different chitosan concentrations during storage at two with lL sample loop, and a UV—Vis detector Waters model temperatures.

Plant material and experimental design detection at nm. All cated in Neyriz, east of Shiraz in the Fars Province, Iran.

On the data are the average of triplicates. same day, harvested fruit were transported by a ventilated car to the laboratory of the Department of Horticultural Science at 2. Pomegranate juice colour measurement Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran. Pomegranate fruit were se- lected for uniformity in size — g , shape and colour.

Three measured colour parameters were con- three replicates were used. Pomegranate fruit were et al. Fruit were allowed to dry for 12 h at room temperature. The day after treatment, fruit were 2. Statistical analysis placed in baskets 15 fruit per basket and stored at 2 ± 0. At the end of each storage period The obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance ANO- every 45 days , three replicates of each treatment were trans- VA using SPSS software Version The ferred to shelf life conditions for three days at 20 °C.

The assess- results are expressed as means ± SE and least significant difference ments and analyses of fruit quality parameters during cold LSD values were calculated for mean comparisons. storage were performed on Days 45, 90 and The same assess- ment was performed on fruit at the time of commercial harvest Day 0.

Table 1 Linear calibration equations of individual anthocyanin standards. Compound tR min Linear range Linear equation r2 2. The arils Pg 3,5-dG 11 0. The aril juice was extracted using a Dp 3-G Fifty millilitres of juice were centrifuged 15 min at Pg 3-G Results and discussion chromatogram.

Anthocyanin qualification and quantification anins than reported results for other pomegranate cultivars. et al. In a recent research, the to- As shown in Fig. Mousavinejad G, Emam-Djomeh Z, Rezaei K, Haddad Khodaparast MH Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and their effects on antioxidant activity in pomegranate juices of eight Iranian cultivars.

Postharvest Biol Technol — Varasteh F, Arzani K, Barzegar M, Zamani Z Changes in anthocyanins in arils of chitosan-coated pomegranate Punica granatum L. Rabbab-e-Neyriz fruit during cold storage. Holcroft DM, Gil MI, Kader AA Effect of carbon dioxide on anthocyanins, phenylalaninie ammonia lyase and glucosyltransferase in the arils of stored pomegranates.

J Am Soc Hort Sci — CAS Google Scholar. Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing.

J Agric Food Chem — Fischer UA, Dettmann JS, Carle R, Kammerer DR Impact of processing and storage on the phenolic profiles and contents of pomegranate Punica granatum L. Mirsaeedghazi H, Emam-Djomeh Z, Ahmadkhaniha R Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice.

J Food Sci Technol. doi: Pala ÇU, Toklucu AK Effect of UV-C light on anthocyanin content and other quality parameters of pomegranate juice. J Food Compos Anal — Turfan Ö, Türkyilmaz M, Yemiş O, Özkan M Anthocyanin and colour changes during processing of pomegranate Punica granatum L.

Hicaznar juice from sacs and whole fruit. Robert P, Gorena T, Romero N, Sepulveda E, Chavez J, Saenz C Encapsulation of polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate Punica granatum by spray drying. Int J Food Sci Technol — Giusti MM, Rodriguez-Saona LE, Griffin D, Wrolstad RE Electrospray and tandem mass spectroscopy as tools for anthocyanin characterization.

Da Costa CT, Horton D, Margolis SA Analysis of anthocyanins in foods by liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A — Wu X, Prior RL Identification and characterization of anthocyanins by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in common foods in the United States: vegetables, nuts, and grains.

Sentandreu E, Navarro JL, Sendra JM Identification of new coloured anthocyanin-flavonol adducts in pressure-extracted pomegranate Punica granatum L. Food Anal Methods 5 4 — Li R, Wang P, Guo Q, Wang Z Anthocyanin composition and content of the Vaccinium uliginosum berry. Carreño J, Almela L, Martínez A, Fernández-López J Chemotaxonomical classification of red table grapes based on anthocyanin profile and external colour.

LWT-Food Sci Technol — Fernández-López JA, Almela L, Muñoz JA, Hidalgo V, Carreño J Dependencr between colour and individual anthocyanin content in ripening grapes. Food Res Int — Ju Z, Liu C, Yuan Y, Wang Y, Liu G Coloration potential, anthocyanin accumulation, and enzyme activity in fruit of commercial apple cultivars and their F1 progeny.

Sci Hortic — Download references. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant No. College of Forest Resources and Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Longpan Rd. Shandong Institute of Pomology, 64 Longtan Rd.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Fang Yanming. Reprints and permissions. Zhao, X. et al. Characterization and evaluation of major anthocyanins in pomegranate Punica granatum L. peel of different cultivars and their development phases.

Eur Food Res Technol , — LAR converts leucoanthocyanidin into catechin, while ANR acts downstream to leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase LDOX and converts anthocyanidins e. pelargonidin, delphinidin into epicatechins Xie et al. By doing so ANR can compete with the enzyme UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3- O -glucosyltransferase UFGT , which converts anthocyanidin into anthocyanin Bogs et al.

Overexpression of ANR in flower petals of tobacco results in loss of color Xie et al. In Arabidopsis , a mutation in the ANR gene results in a colored seed coat due to the presence of anthocyanins Xie et al. Figure 1. Schematic representation of the flavonoid-biosynthesis of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins.

Adapted from Ben-Simhon et al. The genes encoding for anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified in many plant species and most of them show high homology in their encoded amino acid aa sequences. Most of the genes known today in pomegranate were identified by homology to known functional genes in other plant species Ben-Simhon et al.

The whole pomegranate genome sequence together with transcriptomic data provided a comprehensive view of the anthocyanin pathway in pomegranate and of the expression of the genes during fruit development Ophir et al. Despite this, the biological and biochemical function of anthocyanin genes in pomegranate was shown only for very few genes.

These include the LDOX Ben-Simhon et al. As in other plant species, it appears that anthocyanin biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated Ben-Simhon et al. Pronounced color differences among various pomegranate cultivars were reported Tzulker et al.

The variation found among pomegranate varieties is in both the amount and composition of anthocyanins Gil et al. It was found that the kinetics of color appearance during fruit development is different among cultivars and that this difference is also correlated with the expression of a MYB gene Ben-Simhon et al.

It was shown that this phenomenon resulted from a mutation in the LDOX gene, which totally abolished its expression Ben-Simhon et al. Despite the commercial and physiological importance of anthocyanin content and accumulation in pomegranate, the genetic functions responsible for most of the variability of color accumulation and production in pomegranate are not yet known.

Other pomegranate varieties used in this study are described in Supplementary Table 1. The mean diurnal minimum temperature in January is 6°C, and the mean diurnal maximum temperature in July is 33°C. granatum var. nana Harel Beja et al. Fruits were collected during the years — at various developmental stages, from flower to fully mature fruit Figure 2 Ben-Simhon et al.

For RNA-seq analysis fruits were collected from a very early stage after setting and before stage 3. The number of fruits from each variety for each stage was different ten from early stages to three from stages 8—12 , due to the difference in size.

The fruits were photographed. Figure 2. A Fruits of four pomegranate varieties at six different developmental stages Ben-Simhon et al. B Total level of delphinidin and its derivatives purple color and of cyanidin and its derivatives red color in the peel during the various developmental stages of the fruit in four pomegranate varieties.

C Anthocyanin composition in the peel of ripe fruit- stage The varieties shown are P. Figure 3. Young fruitlets were collected every day after pollination for 8 days and then 30 days after pollination stage 2. Whole and half fruitlets are presented in order to show color development.

The plant material used for the experiment investigating light influence on anthocyanin production, which was conducted in the field, is specified in Supplementary Table 1. Fruit peel color of the F 2 and F 3 populations was evaluated visually at ripening. DNA extraction was done according to Harel Beja et al.

Sample preparation and analysis were carried out as previously described Ben-Simhon et al. Extract aliquots were applied to a LiChrospher RP column with guard column LichroCART cartridge, Merck Millipore , and eluted with a binary mobile phase consisting of phosphoric acid 0.

Anthocyanin identification and quantification were achieved using authentic standards. Total anthocyanin content was determined following Rabino and Mancinelli Frozen, grounded tissue 0. The extract was centrifuged at 4°C, rpm for 10 min.

Absorption of the extracts at wavelengths of and nm was determined photo metrically CARY 50 Bio UV-visible Spectrophotometer, Agilent Technologies Inc.

When the absorption value exceeded 1. The anthocyanin content in the supernatant was calculated using the formula A — 0. Results are shown as total anthocyanins per gram fresh weight.

Each result is an average of three measurements. Unfertilized hermaphroditic flowers were collected. Then pieces of the ovary mesocarp with ovules attached were excised and placed on a regeneration medium as described in Terakami et al.

The plates were kept in the dark covered with aluminum foil for 2 weeks to encourage callus formation, and then were subjected for further experiments.

Growth room conditions were 24°C and 16 h light fluorescent light. The effect of light on anthocyanin accumulation in pomegranate peels was studied in tissue culture of fruit cells and on whole fruits grown in the field. Calli formed in the dark for 2 weeks were exposed to light. Half were kept in the dark for another 2 weeks.

Then, the calli were photographed. The experiment on intact fruits was conducted in the field. The fruits were covered in mid-July, 1—3 months before ripening, depending on the ripening date of each accession.

The color of mature fruits from covered and uncovered controls was analyzed. Fruit color was evaluated visually and fruits were photographed.

Total anthocyanin content was measured spectroscopically in peels of covered vs. uncovered mature fruits. For each progeny about five young fruitlets were covered with aluminum bags during May through June, and five were marked and left uncovered.

Upon ripening fruits were analyzed as described above. Mapping was performed using JoinMap 3. The software uses Kosambi mapping functions to translate recombination frequency into map distance. Markers were grouped at a minimum LOD score of 4. The PCR mixture for SSR amplification contained: 30 ng plant genomic DNA, 0.

PCR conditions: 96°C for 2 min, 30 cycles of 94°C for 15 s, 55°C for 30 s and 72°C for 30 s, followed by 72°C for 45 min. SNP markers were genotyped by sequencing PCR products with Genetic Analyzer Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, United States.

A sample consisted of the peel skin of ten fruits collected from different branches on the same tree. Total RNA was quantified spectrophotometrically ND- spectrophotometer, NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE, United States , and RNA integrity was examined on a TapeStation instrument using RNA ScreenTape sample buffer and RNA ScreenTapes Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, United States.

Construction and sequencing of mRNA-seq libraries were performed at the Crown Genomics Institute of the Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine, Weizmann Institute of Science G-INCPM. Briefly, mRNA-seq libraries were generated from total RNA, using the INCPM mRNA Seq protocol.

The indexed libraries were pooled and subjected to sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq instrument Illumina, San Diego, CA, United States. Raw-reads were subjected to a filtering and cleaning procedure. The SortMeRNA tool was used to filter out rRNA. Next, the FASTX Toolkit 2 version 0.

Clean reads were mapped to the reference genome of Punica granatum 3 using Tophat2 software v. Gene abundance estimation was performed using Cufflinks v. Heatmap visualization was performed using R Bioconductor Gentleman et al. Gene expression values were computed as FPKM Fragments per kilo base per million mapped reads.

Differential expression analysis was completed using the edgeR R package Robinson et al. Genes that were more than twofold differentially expressed with false discovery-corrected statistical significance of at most 0.

Venn diagrams were generated using the online tool at bioinformatics. The gene sequences were used as a query term for a search of the NCBI non-redundant nr protein database that was carried out with the DIAMOND program Buchfink et al.

Homologous sequences were also identified by searching against the Eucalyptus grandis genome with the BLAST tool and an E -value threshold of 10 —5. The search results were imported into Blast2GO version 4. KOBAS 3. Primers used for the full-length transcribed gene were p. ANR F1 and p.

ANR R1 Supplementary Table 2. In addition, a fragment of the gene was amplified with specific primers ANR4-F4 and ANR5-R5 Supplementary Table 2. PCR products were sequenced with Genetic Analyzer Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, United States.

In silico characterization and phylogenetic analysis of ANR were performed using various online applications. Virtual translation of the gene was done using the Expasy proteomics server 6 Artimo et al.

NCBI Blastp was used to find homologous proteins and conserved domains 7. Multiple alignment was done with MultAlin sequence alignment tool 8 Corpet, Delphinidin derivatives were responsible for the purple color.

Still, total anthocyanin was 1. The difference in color can thus be attributed to anthocyanin content. Plates containing 4 weeks-old cultured calli were covered with aluminum foil to avoid light penetration.

After 2 weeks the plates were transferred to regular light conditions. Figure 4. The calli were photographed after 2 weeks in complete darkness B Light influence on peel color in intact fruit.

Fruits at stage 6 were covered with aluminum bags, which prevented any exposure to light. At ripening, covered fruits were compared to uncovered fruits. C Total amount of anthocyanin in the peel of fully ripe fruit grown in the dark full black column was compared with that of control uncovered fruit exposed to light gray dotted column.

Under each column there is an image that represents the uncovered fruit left and covered fruit right. The second experiment was conducted in the field on intact fruits. The effect of light deprivation was also evaluated quantitatively using spectrophotometric analysis of total anthocyanins in peels of covered vs.

This population was used earlier to construct a genetic map of pomegranate and for QTL mapping of several important traits Harel Beja et al. Figure 5. Each column represented in the graph is an average of three extracts ± standard error.

Statistical analysis Figure 5B showed no significant difference in total anthocyanins in covered vs. Total anthocyanins content was mapped as a major QTL in the same area on LG2 on the region of marker c with a LOD score of 19 Figure 6B.

Minor QTLs were analyzed by MQM in LG3, LG6, LG9 and LG10 Supplementary Table 3. Figure 6. The regions on the genome corresponding to the F 2 and F 3 recombinations are in purple. B QTL analysis MQM of total anthocyanins for the F 2 progeny at LG2.

However, it did not map to any of the above QTLs in the F 2 population. This approach revealed a region of 1, kb on scaffold36 MTKT This region contains genes. Among them there are two annotated genes known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. bHLH type proteins are known to be part of the complex that regulates the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway Petroni and Tonelli, ANR acts in the anthocyanin pathway, diverting anthocyanins to epicatechin proanthocyanidins; Figure 1.

Within 76 plants of the mapping F 2 population, there were seven recombination events at the associated cc region. However, to distinguish between the candidate genes, two plants that showed recombination between ANR and bHLH markers were selected.

The other F 2 plant was the other way around, i. We screened plantlets of F 3 population 1 with the ANR marker. Nevertheless, other traits such as plant height and fruit size varied among the F 3 plants. Six additional DNA markers were developed between the bHLH and ANR markers Supplementary Table 2.

Genotype analysis of the F 3 plants from both populations with those markers showed additional 23 recombinations and reduced the site of the gene to a region of This region contains 27 genes based on the sequenced pomegranate genomes Qin et al.

Among those genes, ANR is the best candidate since it is known to function at the flavonoid pathway. Table 1.

The allelic composition of ANR and bHLH homozygous markers and the matching peel color in two F 3 populations. Table 2.

What Is Anthocyanin? Foods List, Benefits, and More The strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of anthocyanins may benefit your brain and heart, as well as reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. At ripening, covered fruits were compared to uncovered fruits. Climate effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition in the pomegranate Punica granatum L. A scheme of the location of the F18 and R7 primers with relevance to the insert is in the bottom F18 primer is based on the 18bp that were sequencing from the insert, using the AFLP method. Trends Plant Sci. The predominant fatty acid was linolenic acid
Anthocyanins in Pomegranates Pomegranate Punica Natural stamina enhancer L. is an Pomevranates and interesting fruit tree Anthocyanins in Pomegranates is cultivated Pomegranares many parts of the world. Pmoegranates recent years, ib Anthocyanins in Pomegranates the increase in its cultivation and consumption Anthocyanjns has been a dramatic increase in the scientific interest in its biology, methods of cultivation, adaptation to environmental cues and its health-promoting properties. Quite a large proportion of the various metabolites produced in the pomegranate were determined and their content in the bark, roots, leaves, and fruit was reported. Many reviews on polyphenolic compound content, antioxidant activity and health-promoting compounds were published recently.

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