Category: Family

Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging

Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging

N Engl J Med. Antloxidant studies have Ajtioxidant that sulforaphane increases supplemehts life span of roundworms Enhance body composition prevented age-associated heart problems Body composition analysis mice 50 Looking for your next opportunity? Atherosclerosis9— J Anthropol. Calcium does a lot for you: It plays an important role in blood clotting, it helps your muscles contract, and it regulates normal heart rhythms and nerve functions. Collagen is a popular dietary supplement that may help prevent skin aging by boosting collagen levels in your skin.

Video

Astaxanthin KING OF ANTIOXIDANTS 6000x better than Vitamin C #goseechristyvitaminc Antioxifant, Burnstine Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging there can be setbacks Antioxirant relying Body composition analysis Pure food recipes food for optimal nutrition, and there are supplemsnts when supplements can be a boon. Not all aginng are gor everyone. Calcium does a lot for you: It plays an important role in blood clotting, it helps your muscles contract, and it regulates normal heart rhythms and nerve functions. It also builds and maintains strong bones. A daily intake of calcium helps you replace this calcium and keep bones healthy. When you reach age 50, your daily calcium requirement goes up.

Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging -

Analysis of individual supplements found that vitamin A Relative Risk RR 1. There were no differences in the effect of the antioxidants between study participants who were healthy or those who had various diseases. Treatment duration had no significant effect on the results but dose was significant.

The other antioxidants included in the study were vitamin C and selenium. There was no evidence that vitamin C increased longevity and a lack of evidence for selenium, although neither supplement increased mortality. More research is needed to establish the benefit or harm of these antioxidants.

All rights reserved. Follow us on facebook. Decision support for health professionals ». South Island general practice support ». Practice acquisition and careers in health ».

Click here to register ». Forgot your login? Hint: If you are a General Practitioner your username may be your MCNZ Reset my password ». Login to my bpac. Remember me. Navigation Publications Publications Categories Categories Peer Group Discussions Audits Reports Quizzes Quizzes CME Quizzes Interactive quizzes are based on material found in Best Practice Journal and Best Tests.

Antioxidants and ageing: harmless placebo or dangerous to your health? In this article Introduction A recently published systematic review So what do you tell your patients? Antioxidants table Reference In this article. Antioxidant supplements are unlikely to increase longevity.

It is not necessary for a healthy individual to take antioxidant supplements. The controversial outcomes of antioxidants supplementation therapies, which might partially depend from an underestimation of the patient specific metabolic demand and genetic background, are presented.

Reactive oxygen species ROS comprise both free radicals such as superoxide , and non-radical species such as hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 , Weseler and Bast, ; Gülçin, These molecules, continuously produced in the cell, are involved in physiological events such as cell differentiation, primary immune defense, and signaling Poli et al.

Indeed, some ROS such as H 2 O 2 are versatile players of the molecular signaling machinery because they are small, highly diffusible, and can be rapidly generated and degraded Gough and Cotter, Both radical and non-radical ROS are pro-oxidant species capable of oxidizing in the cell different biomolecules Sies, , which leads to a sequence of chain reactions that may end up in molecular and cellular damage Gülçin, The balance between beneficial and detrimental effects of ROS is preserved in the cell by the activity of a complex array of non-enzymatic and enzymatic detoxification mechanisms collectively known as antioxidants Sies, ; Bast and Haenen, Antioxidants are able to counteract, at relatively low concentrations, the damage induced in cells by ROS, thus protecting physiological targets such as lipids, DNA and proteins Loguercio et al.

Noteworthy, antioxidants may also act indirectly by regulating redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways including transcription factors, and inhibition of poly ADP-ribose polymerase PARP-1 Weseler and Bast, Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress due to a reduction in the efficiency of their endogenous antioxidant systems.

Organs such as heart and brain, with limited replication rate and high levels of oxygen consumption, are particularly vulnerable to this phenomenon, thus explaining almost in part the high prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular diseases CVD in elderly Ames et al.

A substantial body of literature reported an inverse correlation between serum or plasma total antioxidant capacity and both the onset and progression of several diseases, primarily CVD Ciancarelli et al. Consequently, antioxidants supplementation was suggested as a promising therapy in line with the general acceptance of the Free Radical Theory of Aging FRTA Harman, , First presented in Harman , this theory is based on the assumption that lowering the global level of ROS in the body might retard aging, increase life span and be effective in preventing and treating aging-associated diseases Sadowska-Bartosz and Bartosz, Further refinements of this theory addressed the roles of other activated oxygen species in aging in the more generalized Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging OSTA Bokov et al.

This awareness resulted from one side in boosting in the scientific community the quest for novel natural or synthetic antioxidants Donadio et al.

However, the clinical expectations of antioxidants-based therapies have been frequently disappointed. The interplay between endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system in humans is very complex and represents a topical issue that is still under debate in the scientific community.

In this review a selection of recent clinical studies concerning antioxidants supplementation and the evaluation of their influence in aging-related diseases is analyzed Table 1. Many natural compounds have been considered, either singularly or in combination, for supplementation therapies.

Among them, we devoted particular attention to a specific subset of molecules such as vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, curcumin, hydroxytyrosol and coenzyme Q Its antioxidant activity relies on the ability to be reversibly oxidized to ascorbyl radical and then to dehydroascorbate DHA Wells and Xu, The distribution and the concentration of vitamin C in the organs depend on their specific ascorbate requirements and on the tissue distribution of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 and 2 SVCT1 and SVCT2 Figueroa-Mendez and Rivas-Arancibia, Vitamin C ascorbic acid has different important roles in the cell; as a reducing agent and an antioxidant, ascorbate is able to react and inactivate ROS and, most importantly, reduces in membranes LDL and α-tocopheroxyl radicals to regenerate α-tocopherol Vitamin E Chambial et al.

One of the several biological functions mediated by ascorbate is the enhancement of nitric oxide bioavailability, which is essential to preserve endothelial homeostasis Carr and Frei, A recent metanalysis Ashor et al.

Antoniades et al. An interesting study by Mullan et al. However, the role played by vitamin C in aging-associated diseases has not been adequately investigated in clinical trials mainly because this antioxidant was often used in combination with other molecules Watanabe et al.

When referring to vitamin E, a family of 8 isoforms classified in two categories is considered: four saturated analogs α, β, γ, and δ called tocopherols and four unsaturated analogs indicated as tocotrienols, which differ for the methylation pattern Cardenas and Ghosh, These molecules are hydrophobic fat-soluble compounds found in a variety of food sources such as corn oil, peanuts, vegetable oils, fruits and vegetables Cardenas and Ghosh, Most of the studies presented in literature have been performed using α-tocopherol Wallert et al.

Its antioxidant function is strongly supported by the regeneration promoted by vitamin C α-Tocopherol exhibits strong antioxidant capacity in vitro and has been shown to inhibit LDL oxidation Wallert et al. Next to its antinflammatory and antioxidative properties, vitamin E shows other properties, such as the modulation of the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in signaling Cardenas and Ghosh, In addition vitamin E is also involved in the uptake, transport and degradation of tocopherols, as well as the uptake of lipoproteins and the storage and export of lipids such as cholesterol Cardenas and Ghosh, An old randomized controlled trial by Stephens et al.

However, very few human studies have confirmed the efficacy of vitamin E supplementation in aging-associated diseases, and most of them focused on the role of vitamin E supplementation in influencing aspects of aging phenotypes, such as oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers. In this specific context some investigations, performed both in animals models and in humans, effectively demonstrated benefits of vitamin E supplementation Iuliano et al.

Two large randomized trials Yusuf et al. This study, with mean follow-up of 4. The HOPE-TOO, involving 7, patients, confirmed that administration of IU of vitamin E had no evident impact either on cancer outcomes or on major cardiovascular events and death.

Furthermore, during the HOPE-TOO study, the investigators advanced the hypothesis that vitamin E supplementation might even be responsible to increase the risk of heart failure Lonn et al. Another clinical trial explored the effect of vitamin E on the development of chronic heart failure CHF in 8, post-infarction patients without CHF at baseline Marchioli et al.

More recently, Devaraj et al. The authors demonstrated that vitamin E supplementation lowered plasmatic levels of inflammation markers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, such as plasmatic oxidized LDL, urinary F2-isoprostanes and monocytes superoxide anion concentrations Devaraj et al.

However, α-tocopherol supplementation failed to induce any change in intima-media thickness of carotid arteries and no significant differences in cardiovascular events were observed between patients treated with vitamin E and those with placebo Devaraj et al.

As previously underlined, vitamins E and C have been frequently used in combination in clinical trials concerning aging-associated diseases. Results from WACS, as in the case of other antioxidant trials performed with women, failed to find any preventive effects of the antioxidants used on CVD.

This trial did not evidence any benefit from antioxidant supplementation on major CVD outcomes; moreover, vitamin E was associated with an increased risk of stroke Sesso et al. In a recent prospective study performed with 3, aged men, Wannamethee et al.

Notably, whereas the dietary intake of vitamin C did not exert any influence, the dietary intake of vitamin E was significantly correlated with increased risk of HF Wannamethee et al. The authors of this interesting investigation suggested that the reason for the association between vitamin E intake and HF might depend by the fact that vitamin E α-tocopherol may become a pro-oxidant in an environment characterized by high oxidative stress, such as an aged biological system Wannamethee et al.

Resveratrol appears to modulate numerous cell-signaling pathways through the regulation of different molecular targets including the AMP-regulated kinase AMPK and the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirt-1 Yun et al. The variety of molecular mechanisms mediated by this compound translates into a plethora of biological actions, primarily, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

Resveratrol is a good antioxidant and blocks in vitro LDL oxidation, a biological phenomenon associated with the risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction Khurana et al. In rodents, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular risk factor, including blood lipids and VCAM-1, to improve cardiovascular function and physical capacity and to decrease inflammation in the vasculature of aged animals leading to improved vascular function Gliemann et al.

The anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol have been proved by several in vitro experiments. For instance, resveratrol was showed to suppress NF-κB activity induced by beta-amyloid in PC12 neuron cell lines, Jang and Surh, and to reduce the production of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha induced by LPS or beta-amyloid in the microglia Capiralla et al.

Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effect has been demonstrated also in vivo , i. Despite the promising results reported in vitro Zhang et al. Recent studies underlined the importance of patient selection in evaluating the potential therapeutic effects of resveratrol.

Recently, Carrizzo et al. Interestingly, resveratrol failed to exert any effect in vessels from patients without hypertension or dyslipidemia Carrizzo et al. A differential effect of resveratrol influenced by the initial health status was also suggested by a recent meta-analysis by Liu et al.

In a recent work published by Gliemann et al. In this trial 27 healthy physically inactive aged men were randomized into 8 weeks of daily intake of either mg of trans-resveratrol or of placebo and were subjected to concomitant high-intensity ET Gliemann et al.

The main aim of the study was to confirm if oral resveratrol supplementation improved the positive cardiovascular adaptations to ET in aged subjects by specifically increasing sirtuin 1 SIRT1 mediated signaling and by promoting the endogenous antioxidant system. Interestingly, results showed that, whereas ET effectively improved several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation somehow blunted most of these effects leading, among others, to a significantly lower improvement in the training-induced increase in maximal oxygen uptake Gliemann et al.

Curcumin is a lipophilic bioactive phenol derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa , which shows low solubility and stability in aqueous solution.

It is contained in culinary curry and used as a coloring agent in food Bhullar et al. Orally ingested curcumin is metabolized into the active metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin by a reductase found in the intestinal epithelium Sadowska-Bartosz and Bartosz, Extensive research during the last few decades has suggested a strong therapeutic and pharmacological potential of this molecule as antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent Bhullar et al.

Curcumin strong medicinal properties are also associated with reported anti-cancer and neuroprotective effect such as in Alzheimer disease Brondino et al.

A hormetic mechanism of action of this compound is suggested from studies showing that expression levels of the stress response protein Heme Oxygenase-1 HO-1 were increased in cultured hippocampal neurons treated with curcumin Scapagnini et al.

Moreover, this phenolic compound has been shown to reverse chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF in an animal model of depression Xu et al.

Several studies also showed that curcumin interacts with NF-κB, and through this interaction exerts protective function also in the regulation of T-cell-mediated immunity Kou et al. Recently González-Reyes et al. In this study, a pretreatment of the neurons with 5—30 μM curcumin increased by 2.

Furthermore, curcumin induced the translocation into the nucleus of nuclear factor related factor-2 Nrf2 , thereby stimulating an inflammatory and antioxidant response against hemin-induced neuronal death González-Reyes et al.

Curcumin effects on both the arterial endothelial function and the central arterial compliance was recently evaluated in post-menopausal women that underwent a daily ingestion of mg of curcumin Akazawa et al.

In 32 post-menopausal women the Flow Mediated Dilation FMD measured arterial endothelial function, before and after 8 weeks of curcumin ingestion or ET.

After this time, the authors observed that FMD increased significantly both in the exercise and curcumin groups, whereas no significant change in FMD was detected in the control group Akazawa et al. The results obtained suggested that a regular ingestion of curcumin could improve endothelial function and might be a potential alternative treatment for patients who are unable to exercise.

In a different study performed by the same group Akazawa et al. In this case also, the regular ingestion of curcumin, as the ET alone, significantly increased carotid arterial compliance in the group analyzed. Interestingly, the combination of ET and curcumin ingestion, differently from what observed with resveratrol Gliemann et al.

Hydroxytyrosol is an ortho-diphenol a catechol abundant in olive, fruits and extra virgin olive oil Waterman and Lockwood, This compound, due to its catecholic structure, shows a marked antioxidant activity and is able to scavenge oxygen and nitrogen free radicals, inhibit LDL oxidation, platelet aggregation and endothelial cell activation, and protects DNA from oxidative damage Waterman and Lockwood, ; Notomista et al.

Hydroxytyrosol is also a metal chelator and is able to scavenge the peroxyl radicals and break peroxidative chain reactions producing very stable resonance structures Bulotta et al.

Interestingly, scavenging activity of hydroxytyrosol has also been demonstrated with respect to hypochlorous acid HOCl Visioli et al. Moreover, it has been recently reported Giordano et al. The antioxidant activity of hydroxytyrosol seems to be related in vivo to its high bioavailability: various studies have in fact documented a high degree of absorption of this compound, which is fundamental to exert its biological activities Bulotta et al.

Several studies, mostly performed in cell and animal models, have suggested beneficial effects of hydroxytyrosol in the prevention or treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases, especially CVD and cancer Facchini et al.

Most of the studies currently presented in literature on hydroxytyrosol are performed in vitro on cultured eukaryotic cells and very few are the clinical trials performed in humans and more specifically on elderly people.

One of the main reasons is probably the fact that purified hydroxytyrosol is still very expensive, which hampers its use for long-lasting trials. Currently, the attention of the scientific community is focused more on the effect of olive oil supplementation on health, but olive oil is a complex mixture containing variable amounts of triacylglycerols, fatty acids and polyphenols Waterman and Lockwood, , thus no conclusive hypothesis of the use of purified hydroxytyrosol can yet be drawn from these studies.

Oliveras-López et al. After a 6-week s daily intake of polyphenol-rich olive oil with high oleuropein derivative contents, the authors found a significant improvement in lipid profiles, including a reduction of total cholesterol and a significant increase of HDL levels.

Moreover, in the same subjects, an increase of serum total antioxidant capacity, and a concomitant significant increase of catalase in erythrocytes and decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also observed Oliveras-López et al.

The side chain serves to keep the molecule anchored in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and the quinone ring, which is easily and reversibly reduced to the quinol form, enables it to fulfill its function of transferring electrons from complexes I and II to complex III in the respiratory chain, ultimately resulting in the reduction of oxygen to water and the generation of ATP Nowicka and Kruk, ; Laredj et al.

CoQ10 is also capable of recycling and regenerating other antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and ascorbate. CoQ10 has also been identified as a modulator of gene expression, inflammatory processes and apoptosis Bhagavan and Chopra, The quinol prevents lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the initial formation and propagation of lipid peroxy radicals, and in the process it is oxidized to the quinone and H 2 O 2 is produced.

In addition, it has been shown to protect proteins from oxidation by a similar mechanism Forsmark-Andrée et al.

As well as its role in the cellular membranes, CoQ is also believed to function in the blood to protect lipoproteins such as very low density VLDL , low density LDL and high density HDL lipoproteins from oxidation Bentinger et al.

Current evidence suggests that CoQ has a number of independent anti-inflammatory effects Schmelzer et al. It has been shown to reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in monocytes and lymphocytes after an inflammatory stimulus by influencing the expression of NF-κB-dependent genes Schmelzer et al.

Statins can effectively lower CoQ synthesis as they inhibit 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase HMG-CoA reductase , the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway of cholesterol synthesis which includes the formation of the isoprenoid units required to produce CoQ Goldstein and Brown, Moreover, CoQ levels may be pathologically modified in conditions associated with oxidative stress and in aging Potgieter et al.

Data presented in literature on CoQ10 supplementation are heterogeneous and involve a very large number of pathologies. As for HF, no conclusions can be drawn on the benefits or harms of coenzyme Q10 as trials published in literature lack fundamental information concerning clinically relevant endpoints Madmani et al.

More in detail, reports on the effect of CoQ10 in diseases depending on oxidative stress in elderly people are scarce. In a recent study Bloomer et al. Treatment with CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in total blood CoQ10 and reduced blood CoQ10, but did not translate into improved exercise performance or decreased oxidative stress Bloomer et al.

As previously reported, clinical trials involving the use of antioxidants supplementation often show conflicting results and lead to dangerous misconceptions, either too positive or too negative, on the use of these molecules in the treatment of several aging-associated diseases.

Amid this debate, the first aspect that should be considered is that there are several limitations concerning FRTA, the basic hypothesis on which the antioxidants supplementation therapies are mainly based. This theory, as already underlined, suggests a linear dose-response relationship between increasing amounts of ROS and biological damages, which potentially culminates in diseases and mortality.

Therefore, oxidative stress should represent the main driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan Sadowska-Bartosz and Bartosz, The beneficial effects of caloric restriction CR and ET are a good example because they can be considered both as oxidative stressors or inducer of the endogenous antioxidant system activation by favoring a transient cellular increase of ROS Corbi et al.

Many independent investigations raised the possibility that an initial induction of ROS triggered by CR promotes an adaptive stimulation of antioxidant enzymes at the steady state, consequentially CR is now considered as the first example of mitohormesis Agarwal et al.

SIRT1, the first member of sirtuins characterized in humans, plays a crucial role in inducing mitochondrial biogenesis and mediating oxidative stress response through a number of proteins that promote the expression of antioxidant genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR gamma coactivator-1 alpha 5 PGC-1α St-Pierre et al.

SIRT1 interacts with FOXO3a in cells in response to oxidative stress increasing FOXO3 ability to induce cell cycle arrest and resistance to oxidative stress and, at the same time inhibiting FOXO3 ability to induce cell death Brunet et al.

Ferrara et al. Exercise training, as CR, is to date considered an intervention triggering a cellular hormetic adaptation Radak et al. Physical inactivity is indeed one of the major risk factors for CVD, neurodegenerative disorders and many other diseases; consequentially, regular physical exercise exerts health promoting effect on such clinical conditions and in general on aging-related diseases Hu et al.

Exercise is strictly correlated to enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and increased production of ROS and may promote longevity through pathways common to those of CR Lanza et al.

However, the benefits linked to ET strictly depend on the type and workload of exercise and, in particular, overtraining can result in maladaptation and possibly cellular damage Alessio and Goldfarb, ; Chevion et al. ET has been reported to activate PGC-1α, which controls mitochondrial gene expression by a variety of transcription factors Nikolaidis and Jamurtas, This regulation culminates in enhanced oxygen consumption in muscle fibers, which, in turn, promotes ROS generation.

Moreover, beyond skeletal muscle, other tissues, such as blood, heart and lung, represent a source of ROS during exercise Nikolaidis and Jamurtas, Concomitantly to enhanced ROS production, regular exercise leads to the up-regulation of several antioxidant enzymes, including SODs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, reinforcing the concept that a certain amount of ROS is necessary for exercise health-promoting effects Nikolaidis and Jamurtas, It is not surprising, then, that both older and recent studies showed that purified antioxidants supplementation might be inadequate or even damaging for athletes, as they seem to abolish ET benefits, including prevention of certain diseases.

A very interesting study by Ristow et al. The authors measured insulin sensitivity by glucose infusion rate GIR and the amount of ROS within skeletal muscle of trained subjects previously untrained in the presence or absence of antioxidant supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C.

As expected, ET induced ROS formation, which was counteracted by the antioxidant treatment. However, concomitantly to the increase of TBARs, ET was able to stimulate the expression of antioxidant molecules, such as SOD and GPx and induced an increase of GIR; these effects were also inhibited by antioxidants supplementation.

The conclusion of this study was that a transient increase of oxidative stress may contribute to prevent insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and, most importantly, antioxidant supplementation may abrogate these results Ristow et al.

In addition to hormesis another aspect that should be considered for the conflicting results obtained in the clinical trials is the genetic background of the patients enrolled in the studies. In the last decade an increasing number of studies have suggested that longevity depends not only on life style habits but also on the genetic background.

Oxidative stress response is one of the most evolutionary conserved pathways involved in determination of lifespan from yeast to humans Vijg and Suh, ; vB Hjelmborg et al. A GWAS authored by Major et al. The authors concluded that genetic variation contributes to the variability of serologic vitamin E status and may have potential application in determining the regimen of antioxidant supplementation required in complex diseases such as CVD and diabetes Major et al.

Very interesting data concern Haptoglobin Hp , a protein encoded by a polymorphic gene with 2 common alleles denoted 1 and 2, which counteracts the increase of ROS induced by hemoglobin activity Sadrzadeh et al. As previously reported, the HOPE trial, which investigated the potential protective effect of vitamin E in cardiovascular patients, showed that treatment with vitamin E had no effect on cardiovascular outcomes in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events Yusuf et al.

Later, Milman et al. To this end, the authors planned a prospective double-blinded clinical trial in a subgroup of individuals from the HOPE study with type 2 diabetes and found that vitamin E supplementation was effectively able to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with the Hp genotype Milman et al.

Other studies confirmed the impact of Hp genotyping in determining potential benefits from antioxidant therapy, and strongly supported the efficacy of a pharmacogenomic strategy to personalize and fine-tune the treatment with vitamin E in patients with type 2 diabetes Blum et al.

Redox state homeostasis in living systems is very complex and life style factors undeniably concur in determining the impact of changes in oxidative stress response in both unhealthy and healthy subjects.

A large part of studies investigating the effectiveness of antioxidant supplementation therapy in humans raised contrasting results. This is due to many aspects among which the often-limited statistic power of the studies, the patient genetic background, the bioavailability of the molecules used, and the non-specific effects that antioxidants might have in the human body, should be taken into account.

Mainly in the elderly, the clinical trials conducted so far often suffer from an incorrect initial selection of the patients.

Further investigations should be planned to improve patients selection by performing, for example, quantitative characterizations of the redox state for each individual and taking into account both the individual patient demand and genetic background. In addition it is worth to underline that, when dealing with either natural or synthetic antioxidants, clinical trials should consider other two important aspects.

First, antioxidants bearing different functional moieties can be profoundly diverse in terms of chemical structure and mode of action; therefore, it should be recommended to identify the right antioxidant to treat a specific pathological condition Bast and Haenen, Secondly, the validity of the biomarkers used to determine the effects of antioxidants on human health are still under debate van Ommen et al.

VC, VI, and GC conceived and designed the review and wrote the paper; GR and VM performed the bibliographic research; FD and AD edited the manuscript; AF contributed to write the paper. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Abdala-Valencia, H. Vitamin E isoforms differentially regulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 activation of PKC in human microvascular endothelial cells. PLoS ONE 7:e doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Agarwal, S. Caloric restriction augments ROS defense in S.

cerevisiae , by a Sir2p independent mechanism. Free Radic. Ahn, J. Genome-wide association study of circulating vitamin D levels. Akazawa, N.

Curcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Not only is it a powerful antioxidant, but vitamin C can also be used as a lightener to address "liver spots" and darkening around the eyes, which are also signs of aging.

Vitamin C can be found in food or taken in supplement form. The daily recommended amount for an adult is 65 to 90 milligrams. However, excessive amounts can cause side-effects, including but not limited to vomiting, heartburn, and diarrhea.

The function of vitamin E, according to Antoine, is that it protects against collagen crosslinking, and stops the oxidation of lipids linked to both aging and the skin.

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin —similar to vitamin D and K — that's useful in treating wrinkles , dark spots, and skin elasticity, says Best. However, she says these vitamins E and other fat-soluble vitamins need to be closely monitored by a doctor, considering they can reach toxic levels in the body.

This is a trace mineral that prevents vitamin E deficiency. Antoine says selenium helps by reducing DNA damage. Selenium can be found in food, especially Brazil nuts, or as a supplement with a recommended daily dose of mcg.

That said, long-term use of selenium supplements may be linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cancer — but there is conflicting evidence that suggests selenium may lower your cancer risk. More research is needed. While there are many anti-aging vitamins and supplements on the market, Best says that the most effective ones are those that work to counteract the damage caused by oxidative stress.

A majority of vitamins can be obtained through your diet or a supplement. Overall, Best recommends fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin D, E, and K, which impact the skin's health most directly for maintaining a youthful appearance.

Close icon Two crossed lines that form an 'X'. It indicates a way to close an interaction, or dismiss a notification. Reviews The word Reviews. Tech Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down. Home Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down.

Kitchen Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down. Health Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down.

Style Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down. Beauty Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down. Gifts Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down. Coupons Angle down icon An icon in the shape of an angle pointing down.

Although aging is an Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging part Antioxidat life, most of us want to Antioxidamt onto our youthfulness suppleemnts as long suoplements possible. The main causes of Atnioxidant Body composition analysis agung cellular damage caused by reactive molecules called Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging radicals and the Antiosidant of Ancient remedies for wellbeing, which are the Sports-specific nutrition located at the ends of chromosomes that play an important role in cellular division 1. Following a nutrient-dense diet, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol intake are the best ways to support healthy aging and slow the effects of aging on your body. Curcumin — the main active compound in turmeric — has been shown to possess powerful cellular protective properties, which are attributed to its potent antioxidant effects. A process called cellular senescence occurs when cells stop dividing. As you age, senescent cells accumulate, which is believed to accelerate aging and disease progression 23. Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging

Author: Durg

1 thoughts on “Antioxidant supplements for healthy aging

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com