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Metabolic syndrome abdominal obesity

Metabolic syndrome abdominal obesity

Thank you for Obesitg nature. National heart, lung and blood institute; Br Med J : — Associations with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels.

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Abdominal obesity, adiposopathy, inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk management

Metabolic syndrome abdominal obesity -

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is Scientific Director of the International Chair on Cardiometabolic Risk, which is supported by an unrestricted grant from Sanofi Aventis awarded to Université Laval. Québec Heart Institute, Hôpital Laval Research Centre, chemin Sainte-Foy, Pavilion Marguerite-D'Youville, 4th Floor, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G5, Canada.

Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1K 7P4, Canada. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Reprints and permissions. Després, JP. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. Download citation.

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Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. nature review articles article. Abstract Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Access through your institution. Buy or subscribe. Change institution. Learn more. Figure 1: The lipid overflow—ectopic fat model. Figure 2: Factors contributing to global cardiometabolic risk.

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The identification of FCHL patients at high risk for CAD within the large population of individuals with the metabolic syndrome can help identify individuals as candidates for aggressive lipid-lowering interventions.

The metabolic syndrome is a common population trait comprised of a heterogeneous group of oligogenic disorders, such as DM2 and familial combined hyperlipidemia see Fig.

The identification of these metabolic syndrome subtypes by measuring fasting glucose and apo B can help target these high risk patients for lipid-lowering therapy. Patients with the metabolic syndrome should be screened for DM2, as individuals with DM2 and the metabolic syndrome are at high risk for CAD.

Current guidelines recommend that patients with DM2 should be aggressively treated for dyslipidemia with the goal to maintain LDL below 2. Apo B levels increase with age; therefore, age-appropriate apo B levels must be used in diagnosis Several large prospective studies have shown that the apo B level is a better predictor of future cardiovascular events than the LDL cholesterol level 45 , 71 , Recently, the Apolipoprotein-Related Mortality Risk Study published prospective data in , men and women and found that the total apo B level was a better predictor of future CAD risk than LDL cholesterol Importantly, they also found that apo B was a better predictor of CAD risk in individuals with low LDL levels, supporting the idea that patients with low LDL cholesterol levels and increased quantities of small, dense atherogenic particles VLDL, IDL, and LDL are at risk for CAD.

Apo B levels by age and gender mean and 90th percentile. To convert apo B values to grams per liter, divide by In addition to apo B, the measurement of non-HDL cholesterol total cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol can be used to assess the quantity of atherogenic apo B-containing lipoproteins VLDL, IDL, and LDL.

Some investigators have proposed that non-HDL cholesterol could replace the LDL measure in patients with hypertriglyceridemia dyslipidemia with DM2 or FCHL , because these patients have more cholesterol in VLDL particles, and LDL cholesterol alone can underestimate their CAD risk The current NCEP guidelines recommend a non-HDL cholesterol goal of less than 3.

Total apo B and non-HDL cholesterol levels are generally highly correlated, but less so at higher triglyceride levels. Comprehensive treatment of patients with the metabolic syndrome has recently been described in detail The treatment of the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome should be focused on lowering LDL and apo B and increasing HDL.

Statin treatment has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in persons with low LDL cholesterol levels at baseline The percent reduction in LDL cholesterol and apo B by statin medications is similar, but apo B may be a better marker of treatment efficacy in metabolic syndrome patients with normal LDL cholesterol Although LDL cholesterol has remained the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, raising HDL levels is now an important secondary target to reduce CAD risk 5.

Combination lipid-lowering therapy is frequently needed to treat the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome increased triglyceride, reduced HDL, and small, dense LDL particles , if lifestyle changes weight loss and exercise are inadequate. Nicotinic acid and fibric acid derivatives both act to reduce triglyceride and increase HDL cholesterol.

They are frequently used with statin medications. Although fibrate monotherapy lowers plasma triglyceride levels, it can lead to increases in LDL levels. Bile acid resin binders lower LDL cholesterol levels, but can increase triglyceride levels in individuals susceptible to hypertriglyceridemia.

Although niacin is an inexpensive monotherapeutic agent that corrects the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome, it may increase glucose levels in some patients Several groups have recently shown that niacin use in diabetic individuals was safe and effective, resulting in only a transient worsening of glycemic control 78 — The decision to initiate lipid-lowering therapy in nondiabetic individuals with the metabolic syndrome can be difficult using current guidelines, as LDL levels may underestimate CAD risk in this population.

The large population of individuals with the metabolic syndrome appears to be comprised of a heterogeneous group of disorders, and the identification of disease subtypes at high risk for CAD can help identify individuals as candidates for aggressive lipid-lowering interventions.

Two subgroups of patients with the metabolic syndrome, those with DM2 or FCHL, are at particularly high risk for premature CAD. FCHL is characterized by the metabolic syndrome in addition to a disproportionate elevation of apo B levels. The measurement of fasting glucose and apo B in addition to the fasting lipid profile can help to estimate CAD risk and guide treatment decisions in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

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Sign In or Create an Account. Endocrine Society Journals. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. Link between abdominal obesity and metabolic abnormalities. Dyslipidemia of abdominal adiposity.

Prevalence and risk of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome: targeting high risk patients. Screening of metabolic syndrome patients. Treatment of dyslipidemia. Journal Article.

Abdominal Obesity and Dyslipidemia in the Metabolic Syndrome: Importance of Type 2 Diabetes and Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia in Coronary Artery Disease Risk. Carr , Molly C. Carr, M. Oxford Academic. John D. PDF Split View Views.

Abdominal abdoimnal, due to intra-abdominal adiposity, obesitt the progression of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors abdomial of body mass index. This occurs both Enhancing sports decision-making altered secretion Enhancing sports decision-making adipocyte-derived biologically syndromf substances adipokinesincluding free fatty acids, adiponectin, interleukin-6, obestiy necrosis Sugar substitutes for diabetics alpha, and plasminogen abdomminal inhibitor-1, and through exacerbation of insulin Metabolic syndrome abdominal obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing in western populations, due to a combination of low physical activity and high-energy diets, and also in developing countries, where it is associated with the urbanization of populations. The measurement of waist circumference, together with an additional comorbidity, readily identifies the presence of increased cardiometabolic risk associated with abdominal obesity. Accordingly, measurement of waist circumference should become a standard component of cardiovascular risk evaluation in routine clinical practice. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for this population, with pharmacological modulation of risk factors where this is insufficiently effective. BMC Abdominzl Science, Medicine Enhancing sports decision-making Syndroe volume 10Article Mwtabolic 7 Cite this article. Metrics details. Eyndrome syndrome is Enhancing sports decision-making as Enhancing sports decision-making cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal visceral obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein HDL and insulin resistance. Evidence shows that regular and consistent exercise reduces abdominal obesity and results in favourable changes in body composition. It has therefore been suggested that exercise is a medicine in its own right and should be prescribed as such. This review provides a summary of the current evidence on the pathophysiology of dysfunctional adipose tissue adiposopathy.

Author: Dulmaran

2 thoughts on “Metabolic syndrome abdominal obesity

  1. Ich bin endlich, ich tue Abbitte, aber es kommt mir nicht ganz heran. Wer noch, was vorsagen kann?

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