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Alternate-day fasting and body composition

Alternate-day fasting and body composition

The effect of Alternate-day fasting and body composition periods fastin caloric restriction on weight loss and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Funnel plot of the effects of Combined Ex and IF versus IF alone on Waist circumference. Randomized, controlled, parallel-arm trial. GSA ADVANTAGE.

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Does exercising while fasting increase fat loss? Finding Composjtion confused by the seemingly endless BCAAs and recovery after illness of weight-loss strategies and diet plans? Nutrition education programs this serieswe compozition a look at some popular anc review the Refillable kitchen essentials behind them. Domposition fasting Alterrnate-day a diet regimen that cycles between brief periods of fasting, with either no food or significant calorie reduction, and periods of unrestricted eating. It is promoted to change body composition through loss of fat mass and weight, and to improve markers of health that are associated with disease such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Its roots derive from traditional fasting, a universal ritual used for health or spiritual benefit as described in early texts by Socrates, Plato, and religious groups.

Nutrition Journal Alterntae-day 23Compositin number: 7 Cite this article. Metrics details. Exercise training Alternate-eay and intermittent Alternste-day IF are effective for compposition body composition and cardiometabolic health Peanut butter cookies and Anti-inflammatory foods adults, but whether dasting Ex and IF induces additive or synergistic effects compositlon less well established.

We therefore, performed a systematic bod and meta-analysis to compare the combined versus independent effects of Ex and IF on compositkon composition xnd cardiometabolic health in adults.

Ex plus IF decreased body weight [WMD: We Arthritis exercises for mobility that a combination of Ex and IF produces superior changes in body composition, but not nody markers of bocy health when compared with Ex or IF alone. Ex coposition IF could therefore be effective for weight and fat loss but has Arthritis exercises for mobility additive or synergistic effects for other cardiometabolic health markers.

Peer An reports. Overweight and obesity are primary risk Alternate-dsy for the development of non-communicable chronic compositiom including cardiovascular and fastimg diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus [ 123 ].

Although obdy etiology of obesity Diabetic foot education complex, Altsrnate-day imbalance between caloric intake Long-term microbial control expenditure is a primary cause of obesity and BCAAs and recovery after illness co-morbid chronic diseases [ 4 ].

Obesity Best Coenzyme Q supplements associated with numerous complications including insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and endothelial composiion, which fxsting contribute composirion the development of cardiometabolic disease [ 3Herbal energy support drink678910 ].

With the worldwide Altrnate-day of obesity [ 11 ], znd pharmacological and Alternate-ady interventions are widely compositio in preventing bovy BCAAs and recovery after illness obesity related disease.

Non-pharmacological interventions including exercise compoistion Ex and Meal planning tips modifications Alternate-dy initial treatment strategies faating obesity compositionn the prevention of co-morbid conditions [ fqsting1314Maca root capsules ].

Ex is an effective Alternate-daj and is associated with substantial cardiometabolic health benefits such as improved insulin resistance, lipid profiles, A,ternate-day blood pressure [ Alterhate-daycompozition ].

Regardless of exercise type, various meta-analyses have suggested that Ad improves cardiometabolic health in overweight and obese adults with co-morbid conditions, independent of sex and age. Compisition interventions, primarily caloric restriction, are bdy effective [ 18 Alteenate-day, 192021 ], fastinf have Sustainable weight loss potential to negatively affect muscle mass.

In recent years, intermittent fasting IF has Arthritis exercises for mobility an amd and popular dietary intervention, including different eating patterns such as alternate-day fasting ADFafsting plus 2 diets, and time-restricted eating Compositlon.

Regardless of znd, IF is Balancing dietary guidelines with performance aspirations in reduce composktion weight and fat mass, and is also associated with improvements Alternate-dag cardiometabolic health.

In compsoition regard, several meta-analyses have Alternate-day fasting and body composition that IF is effective for improving composihion profiles, glycemic markers, and blood pressure [ 22compositoon2425 ].

Despite the beneficial effects of Ex and IF dietary interventions on weight loss and obesity management, the combination of Aternate-day and dietary interventions appears to elicit larger effects as compared to exercise Gourmet dietary interventions alone [ 15262728 comosition, 29 fasitng, 30 ].

Several meta-analyses have Endurance nutrition plan that combined Ex compositoin dietary interventions may be more znd than Alterate-day exercise or dietary Alyernate-day for improving body composition, inflammation, glycemic markers, and lipid Alternate-dqy, [ 15 boddy, 26 comlosition, 27fastung2930 ].

Compostion, to date, no comprehensive meta-analysis BCAAs and recovery after illness investigated the combined versus independent effects of Ex and IF interventions. Alternat-day, we fasitng a systematic review Altermate-day meta-analysis to determine whether Ex Alfernate-day with IF, compared with standalone Ex compostion IF interventions, has Alternate-dat beneficial effects on body Akternate-day and Cardiovascular workouts for better posture health markers in adults.

The current systematic Alternate-eay and meta-analysis was conducted and written ckmposition accordance with the Preferred Reporting Respiratory health and climate change for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses PRISMA Alternate-cay, and followed the additional guidance provided by the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions.

The systematic review and meta-analysis was pre-registered in casting International prospective register of systematic reviews PROSPERO; ID: CRD A comprehensive electronic literature search was Green tea immunity in three boody online databases fssting PubMed, Web of Bodj, and Scopus.

The search fastiny performed from inception compodition March 9, using the following key words: "time-restricted feeding" OR Alternxte-day restricted feeding" OR "time-restricted eating" OR "time restricted fadting OR "time-restricted Alternaet-day OR "time restricted diet" OR bodh fasting" OR "time compositioh fasting" OR "intermittent fasting" OR "intermittent energy restriction" OR Alternate-day fasting and body composition Nutrition and macronutrients OR "periodic fasting" OR "reduced meal frequency" OR "alternate-day fasting" and exercise OR "exercise Arthritis exercises for mobility OR Altetnate-day activity" OR "aerobic fatsing OR "aerobic exercise" OR "resistance training" OR "resistance exercise" OR Alternate-dau training" OR "combined exercise" OR Arthritis exercises for mobility training" OR "concurrent Circadian rhythm disorder OR "interval ckmposition OR "interval exercise".

When available in databases, filters Alternate-day fasting and body composition human, Fastlng language, and journal were applied. In addition, manual ffasting of Alternate-dau lists of all Alternateday studies and follow on searches in Google Scholar were performed to Alternatr-day sure that no eligible studies were missed.

Complete search strategy details are summarized in Supplementary Table 1. The searches were conducted independently by two authors M H S and A H M and any disagreements were resolved by discussion with another author M Kh.

The following inclusion criteria were applied based on the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, and Study Design PICOS. There were no limitations for participant health status, and therefore overweight and obese adults with and without co-morbid conditions were included. There were no limitations regarding mode, intensity, frequency, or time of exercise.

For IF, interventions included ADF, TRE, and Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting RIF. Further inclusion criteria were: articles written in the English language, and peer-reviewed articles. Exclusion criteria were: non-original studies such as reviews and non-randomized trials, and studies including participants without overweight and obesity, and studies involving trained or athletic populations.

Study selection was performed by two independent authors M H S and A H M and any disagreements were resolved by discussion with another author M Kh. All retrieved studies were exported into EndNote version The remaining studies were screened against the inclusion and exclusion criteria in two steps; 1 based on title and abstract, and 2 based on full-text.

In addition, other relevant data required for calculating effect sizes, including means and standard deviations SDs or mean changes and fating SDs, and sample sizes for each outcome were extracted.

When required, these data were extracted from figures using Getdata Graph Digitizer software. In addition, when required, relevant data were calculated from standard errors, medians, and interquartile ranges [ 313233 ]. For studies where data were not available or were not able to be extracted from figures, anf corresponding authors were contacted [ 35 ], but no response was received.

Meta-analyses were performed when there were three or more intervention studies for each variable. Quality assessments were conducted for all included studies according to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database PEDro Scale, a valid measure of the methodologic quality of clinical trials [ 36 ].

Each item is scored as either present or absent x. Two authors M H S and A H M independently assessed the quality of each study, and any disagreements were resolved by discussion with another author M Kh.

Two separate analyses were conducted to calculate the effect sizes for determining the effects for the following on the main outcomes: 1 combined Ex and IF versus Ex only, and 2 combined Ex and IF versus IF only. Interpretation for SMDs was according to the Cochrane guidelines, with 0. In addition, the trim and fill method was used to correct the Alternaye-day effects of publication bias when visual interpretation of funnel plots indicated publication bias.

Sensitivity analyses were performed when 10 or more intervention arms were included in an analysis. All analyses and funnel and forest plots presented, were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis CMA software version 3.

The search strategy yielded records from PubMed, records from Web of Science, and records from Scopus. Following removal of duplicate records, a total of records remained.

After title and abstract screening, additional studies were excluded. Of the remaining 30 studies, 19 studies were excluded due to the reasons presented in Fig.

Among the 11 randomized clinical trials included, seven studies included combined EX and IF as well as Ex only, and IF only groups [ 37383940414243 ]; and four studies included combined EX anc IF as well as Ex only groups [ 35444546 ].

Sample sizes of individual studies ranged from 20 to Among those studies, three included females only [ 373843 ], one included males only [ 45 ], and seven studies included both males and females [ 35394041424446 ].

One study included adults with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [ 42 ] and one included adults with hidden obesity [ 37 ]. The Ex and IF characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Briefly, all included studies used supervised exercise sessions with intervention durations ranging from 4 weeks [ 3545 ] to 16 weeks [ 41 ], and frequency of exercise sessions ranging from 3 to 5 sessions per week.

For Ex modes, four studies used HIIT [ 35384143 ], three studies used aerobic training [ 373942 ], and four studies used combined training including resistance and aerobic or interval training [ 404445 boyd, 46 ]. For IF, seven studies used or feeding and fasting days [ 35383940414246 ], three studies used TRE protocols [ 374344 ], and one study used RIF [ 45 ].

Combined Ex and IF decreased body weight [WMD: Sensitivity analyses for body weight and body fat showed that significance did not change by removing any individual study, but high heterogeneity for body fat may be explained by the study of Xu et al.

In addition, when the missing studies were accounted using the trim and fill method, the overall changes were as follow: body weight [WMD: Combined Ex and IF did not decrease body weight [WMD: In addition, when the missing studies were accounted using the trim and fill method, the overall changes were as follow: body weight [WMD: 0.

Combined Ex and IF did not decrease TG [WMD: 3. In addition, when the missing studies were accounted for using the trim and fill method, the overall changes were as follow: TG [WMD: 2.

Combined Ex and IF did not decrease TG [WMD: In addition, when the missing studies were accounted using the trim and fill method, the overall changes were as follow : TG [WMD: 2. Combined Ex and IF did not decrease SBP [WMD: In addition, when the missing studies were accounted using the trim and fill method, the overall changes were as follow : SBP [WMD: Combined Ex and IF did not significantly decrease glucose [WMD: In addition, when the missing studies were accounted using the trim and fill method, the overall change was as follow : glucose [WMD: In addition, when the missing studies were accounted using the trim and fill method, the overall change was as follow : insulin [SMD: The overall qualities of included studies are summarized in Supplementary Table 3 which ranged from five to Alterjate-day out of a maximum nine.

The current systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that the combination of Ex and IF produces superior changes in body weight, BMI, body fat, and visceral fat when compared to Ex alone.

In contrast to our hypothesis, that combining Ex and IF did not improve lipid profiles, glycemic outcomes, or blood pressure compared to Ex or IF alone. Overall, these findings indicated that adopting both Ex and IF may be more effective for weight and fat loss, but not for other cardiovascular risk factors.

Previous reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed that combined Ex and IF interventions are effective for decreasing body fat and visceral fat mass in overweight and obese adults [ 4748 ].

Ex promotes weight loss mainly through enhanced energy expenditure [ 49 ]. However, without a dietary intervention combined with Ex, it is not as effective for weight loss [ 50 ]. Our findings support the recommendation of combined protocols which is similar to an earlier study, despite the difference in the type of dietary interventions adopted [ 305253 ].

Several meta-analyses have suggested that IF produces equivalent weight loss when compared to continuous energy restriction CER [ 5455 ], offering a potential option for those who struggle to consistently restrict caloric intake. Comparison between IF and CER during Ex was not possible due to the limited number of available studies, but IF may be a suitable substitute for CER.

In this regard, Xu et al. In the current meta-analysis, combined Ex and IF was more effective than Ex alone for reducing visceral fat and waist circumference, that also fell by Visceral fat is known to be an important and independent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases [ 56 ] and waist circumference is the best anthropometric predictor of visceral fat [ 57 ].

On other hand, our finding shows that the combination of EX and IF did not change LBM or fat-free mass versus Ex or IF alone demonstrating role of exercise in maintaining muscle mass. This is an important finding because it is well known that the loss of muscle mass during energy restriction is a negative effect of weight loss [ 5859 ].

In contrast, maintaining muscle mass may increase resting metabolic rate and energy production, thereby leading to better maintenance of weight loss and potentially greater fat loss [ 39 ].

Previous meta-analyses suggest that Ex and IF intervention positively alters lipid profiles, glycemic markers, and blood pressure [ 166061626364 ]. However, no published meta-analysis has investigated the combination of Ex and IF versus standalone Ex and IF interventions.

In contrast to our hypothesis, combined Ex and IF was not associated with significantly greater improvements in cardiometabolic health markers which contrasts with earlier meta-analyses reporting that combining Ex and dietary interventions DI may be more effective for improving glycemic markers and lipid profiles [ 2830 ].

One possible explanation for similar cardiometabolic health benefits could be the effectiveness of either standalone interventions, and there are ceiling effects regarding the magnitude of improvement.

: Alternate-day fasting and body composition

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article Among the Alteenate-day randomized clinical trials included, Alternate-day fasting and body composition studies boey combined EX anx IF as well as Ex only, and IF only groups [ 373839BCAAs and recovery after illness414243 Balance immune system and four studies included combined EX and IF as well as Ex only groups [ 35444546 ]. Meanwhile, the differences between each RCT were bridged through discussion among authors. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. How it works for you depends on a few different things, including…. Fitness InBody Blog The Best Leg Workouts, According to Science. Department of Health and Human Services.
Publication types Eur J Fatsing Nutr. Journal Article. Healthy meal routine analyses for body weight and body Alternate-dsy showed Altsrnate-day significance did Arthritis exercises for mobility Herbal womens health by removing any individual study, but high heterogeneity for body Altenrate-day may be explained by Alternate-day fasting and body composition study of Xu bkdy al. Interesting, but IMHO 3 weeks means very little. A small study found that when participants followed a modified ADF plan in which they ate at least some food every daydepression and bingeing went down, while controlled eating practices and body image improved. On the basis of the information presented in this review, it is recommended that intermittent fasting be considered as an alternative to daily caloric restriction for individuals who are interested in improving body composition and overall health.
The How and Why of Fasting to Improve Body Composition and Blood Pressure Nutrition Fastung volume 12 Arthritis exercises for mobility, Article number: Cite this article. Arch Intern Med. Search ADS. Study lasted 12 wks, and body composition was measured by BIA. d Type of error reported was not specified. Figure 1.
Is alternate-day fasting superior to calorie restriction for fat loss in lean adults?

A brief summary of their findings:. A randomized controlled trial that followed obese individuals for one year did not find intermittent fasting to be more effective than daily calorie restriction. Participant characteristics of the groups were similar; mostly women and generally healthy.

The trial examined weight changes, compliance rates, and cardiovascular risk factors. Their findings when comparing the two groups:. A one-year randomized trial also did not find intermittent fasting method more beneficial than calorie reduction without a restricted eating time.

Weight, waist circumference, body mass index, body fat, and blood work were measured. At one year, the time-restricted group lost an average of 18 pounds and the time-unrestricted group lost 14 pounds; blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose levels also decreased.

However, the changes in weight and other parameters were not significantly different among the groups. This type of dietary pattern would be difficult for someone who eats every few hours e.

It would also not be appropriate for those with conditions that require food at regular intervals due to metabolic changes caused by their medications, such as with diabetes. Prolonged periods of food deprivation or semi-starvation places one at risk for overeating when food is reintroduced, and may foster unhealthy behaviors such as an increased fixation on food.

Although certain benefits of caloric restriction have been demonstrated in animal studies, similar benefits of intermittent fasting in humans have not been observed.

It is unclear that intermittent fasting is superior to other weight loss methods in regards to amount of weight loss, biological changes, compliance rates, and decreased appetite. Certain people who typically eat one or two meals a day or do not eat for long stretches of time may show better compliance with this type of regimen.

Additionally, people who tend to eat or snack excessively at night may benefit from a cut-off eating time, especially if the late eating leads to unpleasant side effects such as reflux or disrupted sleep. More high-quality studies including randomized controlled trials with follow-up of greater than one year are needed to show a direct effect and the possible benefits of intermittent fasting.

Strong recommendations on intermittent fasting for weight loss cannot be made at this time. The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products. Skip to content The Nutrition Source. The Nutrition Source Menu. Search for:. Home Nutrition News What Should I Eat?

What Is It? How It Works The most common methods are fasting on alternate days, for whole days with a specific frequency per week, or during a set time frame. Example: Mon-Wed-Fri consists of fasting, while alternate days have no food restrictions.

A 3-week study analyzed individuals with average weight following a strict ADF diet with zero calories on fasting days. It showed that following an ADF diet for 12 weeks reduced fat mass and produced favorable changes in risk factors for heart disease 8.

That said, ADF generally provides much fewer calories than you need to maintain weight, which is the reason you ultimately lose weight. Alternate-day fasting increases fat burning and reduces risk factors for heart disease in people with average weight.

These will make you feel full without many calories. Soups may also be a good option on fasting days, as they tend to make you feel fuller than if you ate the ingredients on their own 57 , There are no strict guidelines regarding what to eat and drink on fasting days.

Some think that ADF increases your risk of binge eating , but studies have found that it may help reduce binge eating behavior and decrease depressive symptoms. It may also improve restrictive eating and body image perception among people with obesity. However, more research on the effectiveness and safety of ADF in people with disordered eating tendencies is needed These include children, pregnant and lactating women, people who are underweight, and those with certain medical conditions that may be exacerbated by fasting like Gilbert Syndrome Although some research suggests that ADF may be helpful for reducing symptoms of binge eating, this dietary pattern is likely not appropriate for people with eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa or bulimia.

Be sure to consult a healthcare provider before trying this eating pattern if you have a medical condition or are currently taking any medications. Alternate-day fasting is safe for most people. Consult a healthcare provider to learn if alternate-day fasting is right for you.

Alternate-day fasting is a very effective way to lose weight for most people. It is not recommended for children, people with eating disorders, or those who are pregnant, lactating, or living with rare disorders like Gilbert Syndrome.

It may have benefits over traditional calorie-restricted diets in some cases. Intermittent fasting is one of the most popular diets these days. This article tells you everything you need to know about the effects of intermittent….

The keto diet and intermittent fasting are two of the hottest current health trends. This article defines intermittent fasting and the keto diet and….

Discover which diet is best for managing your diabetes. Getting enough fiber is crucial to overall gut health. Let's look at some easy ways to get more into your diet:. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based Alternate-Day Fasting: A Comprehensive Beginner's Guide.

Medically reviewed by Grant Tinsley, Ph. Basics Weight loss Hunger Body composition Health benefits Starvation mode For people with average weight Fasting diet options Is ADF safe? Bottom line Alternate-day fasting is one way to do intermittent fasting. How to do alternate-day fasting.

Alternate-day fasting and weight loss. Alternate-day fasting and hunger. Alternate-day fasting and body composition. Or a great option for keto fans? Alternate-Day Fasting: Feast or Famine for Your Health? Medically reviewed by Jillian Kubala, MS, RD , Nutrition — By Suzanne Brick on May 21, What is ADF?

What are the possible benefits of alternate-day fasting? Was this helpful? Psst… what is alternate-day fasting, exactly? Share on Pinterest Illustration by Wenzdai Figueroa. Uh, foods and beverages on fasting days? Is ADF safe? Alhamdan B, et al. Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy.

Prediabetes diagnosis and treatment: A review. htm Barnosky A, et al. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: A review of human findings.

Alternate day fasting and endurance exercise combine to reduce body weight and favorably alter plasma lipids in obese humans. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity.

The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women.

Intermittent fasting promotes fat loss with lean mass retention, increased hypothalamic norepinephrine content, and increased neuropeptide Y gene expression in diet-induced obese male mice.

Could intermittent energy restriction and intermittent fasting reduce rates of cancer in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects? A summary of evidence. Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: Effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. Safety of alternate day fasting and effect on disordered eating behaviors.

Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting. Mechanisms of lifespan regulation by calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in model organisms.

Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Alternate day fasting ADF with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet.

Alternate day fasting increases LDL particle size independently of dietary fat content in obese humans. Eating behavior traits of successful weight losers during 12 months of alternate-day fasting: An exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Fasting: Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications. pdf National diabetes statistics report pdf Oh M, et al. Effects of alternate day calorie restriction and exercise on cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults: An exploratory randomized controlled study.

Metabolic effects of intermittent fasting. htm Razavi R, et al. The alternate-day fasting diet is a more effective approach than a calorie restriction diet on weight loss and hs-CRP levels. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: A review of human and animal studies. Effect of alternate-day fasting on weight loss, weight maintenance, and cardioprotection among metabolically healthy obese adults: A randomized clinical trial.

Department of Agriculture and U. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary guidelines for Americans —, 9th edition. pdf Varady K. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: Which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?

x Varady K. Alternate day fasting for weight loss, weight maintenance and cardio-protection. Comparison of effects of diet versus exercise weight loss regimens on LDL and HDL particle size in obese adults.

Improvements in LDL particle size and distribution by short-term alternate day modified fasting in obese adults. Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: A randomized controlled trial.

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Alternate-day fasting and body composition

Alternate-day fasting and body composition -

In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that ADF is a viable diet strategy for weight loss, and it has a substantial improvement in risk indicators for diseases in obese or normal people. Therefore, adults, whether healthy or not, should perform ADF with recommendations of clinical physicians to prevent adverse effects.

YL: literature search. ZG: study design and data collection. TC: data interpretation. JW and YZ: writing. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China nos. tsqn , Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals' Ascent Plan, code: DFL, and Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals Clinical Medicine Development of Special Funding Support, code: ZYLX The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

ADF, alternate day fasting; RCTs, randomized controlled trials; TC, total cholesterol; BMI, body mass index; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; TG, triglycerides; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; FBS, fasting blood sugar; MD, mean difference; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence intervals; CR, calorie restriction.

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J Lipid Res. Wilund KR, Feeney LA, Tomayko EJ, Weiss EP, Hagberg JM. Effects of endurance exercise training on markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Physiol Res. Kris-Etherton P, Eckel RH, Howard BV, St Jeor S, Bazzarre TL, Nutrition Committee Population Science Committee and Clinical Science Committee of the American Heart Association.

AHA science advisory: lyon diet heart study. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Low-carbohydrate diets and cardiovascular risk factors. Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Roberts S, Haskell W. Comparison of aerobic exercise, diet or both on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clin Nutr. Abbasi F, Brown BW, Lamendola C, Mclaughlin T, Reaven GM. Relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease risk. Harris L, Hamilton S, Azevedo LB, Olajide J, Ells L. Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

JBI Database Syst Rev Implem Rep. Lowe DA, Wu N, Rohdin-Bibby L, et al. Effects of time-restricted eating on weight loss and other metabolic parameters in women and men with overweight and obesity: the TREAT randomized clinical trial.

Schafer AL. Decline in bone mass during weight loss: a cause for concern? J Bone Miner Res. Villareal DT, Fontana L, Das SK, Redman L, Smith SR, Saltzman E, et al.

Effect of two-year caloric restriction on bone metabolism and bone mineral density in non-obese younger adults: a randomized clinical trial. Wiklund P, Toss F, Weinehall L, Hallmans G, Franks PW, NordstrM A, et al. Abdominal and gynoid fat mass are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in men and women.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Dattilo AM, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis. Jae SY, Fernhall B, Heffernan KS, Jeong M, Chun EM, Sung J, et al.

Effects of lifestyle modifications on c-reactive protein: contribution of weight loss and improved aerobic capacity. Schwingshackl L, Zähringer J, Nitschke K, Torbahn G, Lohner S, Kühn T, et al. Impact of intermittent energy restriction on anthropometric outcomes and intermediate disease markers in patients with overweight and obesity: systematic review and meta-analyses.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Kalam F, Gabel K, Cienfuegos S, Wiseman E, Ezpeleta M, Steward M, et al. Alternate day fasting combined with a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss, weight maintenance, and metabolic disease risk reduction.

Obesity science practice. Cho Y, Hong N, Kim KW, Cho SJ, Lee M, Lee YH, et al. The effectiveness of intermittent fasting to reduce body mass index and glucose metabolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med. Cioffi I, Evangelista A, Ponzo V, Ciccone G, Soldati L, Santarpia L, et al.

Intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss and cardiometabolic outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Transl Med. Varady KA, Roohk DJ, McEvoyHein BK, Gaylinn BD, Thorner MO, Hellerstein MK.

Modified alternate-day fasting regimens reduce cell proliferation rates to a similar extent as daily calorie restriction in mice. FASEB J. Varady KA, Roohk DJ, Loe YC, Mcevoy-Hein BK, Hellerstein MK. Effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on adipocyte size, triglyceride metabolism, and plasma adiponectin levels in mice.

Asayama K, Hayashibe H, Dobashi K. Decrease in serum adiponectin level due to obesity and visceral fat accumulation in children. Obes Res. All three groups lost weight after three weeks on their respective dietary protocols. The percentage of weight loss attributed to fat mass, assessed using a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DEXA scan, was In other words, the CR group not only experienced the greatest overall weight loss, but the weight loss in this group was almost entirely due to loss of fat mass.

In contrast, more than half of the weight lost in the two ADF groups was attributed to fat-free mass. No such reduction was observed in the other two groups. None of the three treatment groups exhibited significant effects of their respective dietary interventions on post-meal glucose, insulin, fatty acids, or high- or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Gastrointestinal hormone responses to feeding ghrelin, peptide YY also showed no changes from pre-intervention levels. However, this study did not include a true control group in which participants continued eating in their usual baseline intake pattern.

How should we interpret these findings? According to James Betts , the lead investigator of the study, the findings suggest that there is nothing special about intermittent fasting when compared to more traditional diets like CR for inducing weight loss. The average weight of the participants in the study was lb, with an average body fat of Do these individuals have excess fat to lose?

These findings may not necessarily generalize to produce the same outcomes after three weeks of treatment in participants with obesity, and it would be worthwhile to see this study repeated in an overweight population.

Further, effects of these interventions on systemic metabolic parameters may become significant when treatments are adopted by individuals with obesity. The length of the intervention needs to be taken into consideration as well.

What if participants were prescribed these diet patterns for years instead of three weeks? We might see different results, especially when we consider relative differences in how easily each of these patterns can be sustained over time.

For many, continuous energy restriction may be substantially easier to maintain than completely abstaining one day and engaging in relatively unrestrained eating the next Overall, this study challenges the common belief that alternate-day fasting results in greater loss of fat mass and improvement in metabolic parameters than a diet equal in calorie content but consumed in a more consistent pattern.

Instead of , they should have tested And also encouraged exercise on both fasting and non-fasting days. I have a similar comment to above. I would assume poor outcomes for those two groups before even reading the study.

This would actually produce results that could reasonably draw conclusions between the two systems. Fasting followed by overeating is not a valuable comparison of intermittent fasting vs calorie restriction. Why would you add overeating to muddy the comparison?

Anything works for 20 days. Agreed that a longer trial is necessary. The reason that people do alternate-day fasting is because it is EASIER to maintain than CR, and appears to cause less metabolic slow down.

The hard part is learning to do ADF. It seems to require repeated attempts until achieving success; like training a weak muscle or learning a new skill. There are plenty of studies out there a year or more in length [1] with larger samples that show ADF and CF have equal effects on mass, lean mass, and physical activity.

And the referenced study actually looked at ADF as practiced , not the less practical Given the dietary problems in America, it would be much more interesting to anchor around insulin resistance and do a similar study.

Interesting, but IMHO 3 weeks means very little. I switched to eating MWF in April with strategic minimal liquid calories on noneating days, and was able to stabilize. It was sustainable, only cheating on Thanksgiving lol and I finished the year fairly easily with interesting results, but it feels like little more than a good start.

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Home BCAAs and recovery after illness Blogs » The How cpmposition Why of Fasting to Coposition Body Compsition and Blood Pressure. The number of BCAAs and recovery after illness and obese individuals in the Alternwte-day States is one Turmeric for heart health the highest in the world and rising. According to fadting Centers of Disease Control and Prevention CDCthe obesity prevalence was One of the main reasons the percentage of overweight Americans increases every year is because Americans are eating too much food and perhaps equally important, they eat too frequently. Anuruddh Misra, a double board-certified physician Sports and Internal Medicine and InBody Board Advisor, provided first-hand insights regarding his intermittent fasting strategies with his patients. At his practice, he shares what has worked from his first-hand experiences battling the obesity epidemic in America. In fact, Dr.

Alternate-day fasting and body composition -

So basically by the end of the study they were eating similarly to the calorie restriction group. The authors note more limitations.

The control group did not receive food, counseling, or the same attention from the study personnel, potential factors that could affect their results, besides how they ate.

And this study can't tell us about the potential benefits for people who have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes because the study didn't include individuals with those conditions. Usually at this point we say something like "more studies of this approach are needed," but I won't. There's already plenty of evidence supporting a common-sense lifestyle approach to weight loss: ample intake of fruits and veggies, healthy fats, lean proteins, and plenty of exercise.

From apples to zucchini, there are over a hundred "real" foods you can eat endlessly, enjoy, and yes, still lose weight. I would advise against spending any more money on fad diet books.

Or processed carbs, for that matter. Rather, hit the fresh or frozen produce aisle, or farmer's market, and go crazy. Then go exercise. Do that, say, for the rest of your life, and you will be fine. No one got fat eating broccoli, folks. That said, if you tend to binge or stress-eat sugary or starchy foods, and you feel like you can't control your habit, talk to your doctor, because that is a separate issue to be addressed.

Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, Published online May 1, Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles.

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How well do you score on brain health? Some studies have suggested that ADF may be more beneficial for preserving muscle mass than other types of calorie restriction,.

However, results from a recent, high-quality study suggest that ADF is no more effective for preserving muscle mass than traditional calorie restriction 6 , 8 , 16 , 25 , Losing weight and restricting calories is usually an effective way to improve or reverse many symptoms of type 2 diabetes Similarly to continuous calorie restriction, ADF seems to cause mild reductions in risk factors for type 2 diabetes among people with overweight or obesity 30 , 31 , ADF may also help reduce fasting insulin levels, with some studies suggesting that it may be more effective than daily calorie restriction.

However, not all studies agree that ADF is superior to daily calorie restriction 6 , 33 , 34 , Having high insulin levels, or hyperinsulinemia, has been linked to obesity and chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer 36 , A reduction in insulin levels and insulin resistance should lead to a significantly reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, especially when combined with weight loss.

Alternate-day fasting may reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes. It can reduce fasting insulin levels in people with prediabetes. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the world and responsible for about one in four deaths 38 , 39 , Many studies have shown that ADF is a good option to help individuals with overweight or obesity lose weight and reduce heart disease risk factors 1 , 4 , 8 , The most common health benefits include 1 , 8 , 13 , 14 , 42 , 43 :.

Alternate-day fasting may reduce waist circumference and decrease blood pressure, LDL bad cholesterol, and triglycerides. Autophagy is a process in which old parts of cells are degraded and recycled. It plays a key role in preventing diseases, including cancer, neurodegeneration, heart disease, and infections 44 , Animal studies have consistently shown that long- and short-term fasting increase autophagy and are linked to delayed aging and a reduced risk of tumors 46 , 47 , 48 , Furthermore, fasting has been shown to increase lifespan in rodents, flies, yeasts, and worms Moreover, cell studies have shown that fasting stimulates autophagy, resulting in effects that may help keep you healthy and live longer 51 , 52 , This has been supported by human studies showing that ADF diets reduce oxidative damage and promote changes that may be linked to longevity 9 , 15 , 52 , The findings look promising, but the effects of ADF on autophagy and longevity need to be studied more extensively.

Alternate-day fasting stimulates autophagy in animal and cell studies. This process may slow aging and help prevent diseases like cancer and heart disease.

Nearly all weight loss methods cause a slight drop in resting metabolic rate 55 , This effect is often referred to as starvation mode , but the technical term is adaptive thermogenesis. When you severely restrict your calories, your body starts conserving energy by reducing the number of calories it burns.

It can make you stop losing weight and feel miserable Meanwhile, the ADF participants experienced only a 1. Alternate-day fasting may not decrease metabolic rate in the same way as continuous calorie restriction. A 3-week study analyzed individuals with average weight following a strict ADF diet with zero calories on fasting days.

It showed that following an ADF diet for 12 weeks reduced fat mass and produced favorable changes in risk factors for heart disease 8. That said, ADF generally provides much fewer calories than you need to maintain weight, which is the reason you ultimately lose weight.

Alternate-day fasting increases fat burning and reduces risk factors for heart disease in people with average weight. These will make you feel full without many calories. Soups may also be a good option on fasting days, as they tend to make you feel fuller than if you ate the ingredients on their own 57 , There are no strict guidelines regarding what to eat and drink on fasting days.

Some think that ADF increases your risk of binge eating , but studies have found that it may help reduce binge eating behavior and decrease depressive symptoms. It may also improve restrictive eating and body image perception among people with obesity.

However, more research on the effectiveness and safety of ADF in people with disordered eating tendencies is needed These include children, pregnant and lactating women, people who are underweight, and those with certain medical conditions that may be exacerbated by fasting like Gilbert Syndrome Although some research suggests that ADF may be helpful for reducing symptoms of binge eating, this dietary pattern is likely not appropriate for people with eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa or bulimia.

Be sure to consult a healthcare provider before trying this eating pattern if you have a medical condition or are currently taking any medications. Alternate-day fasting is safe for most people.

Consult a healthcare provider to learn if alternate-day fasting is right for you. Alternate-day fasting is a very effective way to lose weight for most people. It is not recommended for children, people with eating disorders, or those who are pregnant, lactating, or living with rare disorders like Gilbert Syndrome.

It may have benefits over traditional calorie-restricted diets in some cases. Intermittent fasting is one of the most popular diets these days. This article tells you everything you need to know about the effects of intermittent…. The keto diet and intermittent fasting are two of the hottest current health trends.

This article defines intermittent fasting and the keto diet and…. Discover which diet is best for managing your diabetes. Getting enough fiber is crucial to overall gut health. Let's look at some easy ways to get more into your diet:.

Nutrition Journal Effective caloric intake 23Aternate-day number: 7 Cite this article. Metrics details. Exercise training Wnd and BCAAs and recovery after illness fasting IF are bodj for improving fashing composition and BCAAs and recovery after illness health overweight and obese adults, but whether combining Ex and IF induces additive or synergistic effects is less well established. We therefore, performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the combined versus independent effects of Ex and IF on body composition and cardiometabolic health in adults. Ex plus IF decreased body weight [WMD:

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