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Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide

Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide

You may Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide notice swelling at the base of Freshwatrr fin, and in severe cases, the fin or tail may deteriorate completely. Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide go about cleaning your Fsh. Seeking the help Disexses an experienced aquarium hobbyist or a vet who will treat fish will help make sure that you are not going to harm them by overmedicating. You may notice that they spend more time near the top of the tank, gulping air or rubbing their side on their tank. The most obvious way to know if your fish has an internal parasite is weight loss. Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide

Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide -

As acriflavine can possibly sterilize fish and copper can lead to poisoning, the water should be gradually changed after a cure has been effected. Raising the water temperature to 80° — 83° F for a few days has also been effective. Hexamita Symptoms: The first symptom of slimy, white mucous feces, even while still eating and acting normal.

Hexamita are intestinal flagellated protozoa that attack the lower intestine. Discus and other large cichlids, especially Oscars, are especially prone to Hexamita.

Saltwater fish are affected on rare occasions as well As it is a disease of the digestive tract, a wasting away or loss of appetite may be experienced. An effective treatment is the drug metronidazole.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic for anaerobic bacteria with anti-protozoal properties. This drug is reef safe, and medications are either added to the water or mixed with the fish food.

Metronidazole works by ceasing the growth of bacteria and protozoa. Metronidazole is an antibiotic for anaerobic bacteria with anti-protozoal properties, and this drug is reef safe.

Repeat the water treatment every other day for three treatments. Head and Lateral Line Erosion disease looks like cavities or pits on the head and face. This is not a protozoan disease, but is actually caused by environmental conditions.

Excessive slime. Problems breathing ich invades the gills , clamped fins, loss of appetite. Ich, Ick, or White Spot Disease is the most common malady experienced in the home aquarium. Luckily, this disease is also easily cured if caught in time!

Ich is actually a protozoa called Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. There are three phases to the life cycle of this protozoa. Normally, to the amateur aquarist, the life cycle is of no importance.

However, since Ich is susceptible to treatment at only one stage of the life cycle, an awareness of the life cycle is important.

These three phases take about 4 weeks at 70° F but only 5 days at 80° F. For this reason it is recommended that the aquarium water be raised to about 80° for the duration of the treatment. If the fish can stand it, raise the temperature even higher up to 85°. The free swimming phase is the best time to treat with chemicals.

Raising the aquarium temperature to 80° F will greatly shorten the time for the free swimming phase to occur. The drug of choice is quinine hydrochloride at 30 mg per liter 1 in 30, Quinine sulphate can be used if the hydrochloride is not available. The water may cloud but this will disappear.

By reducing the time with raised temperature of the phases, you should be able to attack the free swimming phase effectively. Some aquarists like to use malachite green, but it tends to stain the plastic and silicone in the aquarium.

Marine Ich — Crypt — Marine White Spot Disease Cryptocaryon irritans Symptoms: Small white spots, nodules, or patches on their fins, body, or gills. Fish may produce excessive slime, show problems breathing ich invades the gills , have frayed fins, loss of appetite, and cloudy eyes.

White spots may not be obvious on light-colored fish or if the infection is just in the gills, however that may not rule out infection. Other indications can include rubbing or scratching against decor or substrate, abnormal swimming, hanging at the surface or on the bottom, acting lethargic, or breathing more rapidly as if in distress.

Marine Ich, Crypt, or Marine White Spot Disease is one of the most common maladies experienced in the marine aquarium, with the other being Marine Velvet. It can grow in environments with excessive stress, poor water quality and fluctuations in water temperature.

It can also come into the aquarium on a new fish that is a carrier. This protozoa has four phases to its life, lasting up to 38 days depending on the temperature of the environment. This parasite affects marine and brackish fish. Unfortunately this visual clue is also the reason for difficulty in eradicating marine ich.

The life cycle is outlined here:. The life cycle of this parasite can vary dramatically and is dependent on temperature. Optimal growth of most strains of Cryptocaryon appear to be about A common mistake is to confuse the treatment of this protozoan with the treatment for freshwater Ich Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

Raising the temperature of the tank does not eliminate this protozoa like it does with freshwater Ich. Ideally the parasite would be eliminated while on the host or shortly after leaving the host.

However, those that are buried in the gills are immune to treatment until they leave the fish. This along with the variability of the cycle makes it difficult to treat in such a timely manner.

To rid the aquarium of this protozoa, it is recommended that you use a combination of water changes and chemical treatment, a multiple number of times.

Reportably some healthy fish can develop a limited immunity. It may not be a total immunity, rather being just a small amount of infestation rather than extensive infestation. This immunity is short-lived lasting only about six months.

Muscle degeneration leading to abnormal swimming movements. So named for the fish it was first recognized on, the Neon Tetra. It is caused by the sporozoa Plistophora hyphessobryconis. Even though it is named after Neon Tetras, it can appear on other fish.

Whitish patches appear as if just below the skin. In Neon Tetras it destroys the bright blue-green neon stripe.

The organisms form cysts which burst and release spores. The spores penetrate further and form more cysts. Eventually, the spores migrate to the water and are eaten by other fish in the food. These spores migrate into the digestive tract, then the muscles, and a new infection starts.

There is no known cure. It is best to destroy the infected fish and clean the aquarium. Glugea and Henneguya Symptoms: Similar to Lymphocystis, the fish will have nodular white swellings on fins or body.

Luckily, these diseases are very rare. The fish bloat up, with tumor-like protrusions, and eventually die. No cure, as of yet.

It is best to destroy the infected fish before the spores can spread. Chilodonella Symptoms: Dulling of the colors due to excessive slime, fraying of the fins, weakness, gill damage This disease causes a blue white cloudiness on the skin and attacks the gills.

Later the skin may be broken down and the gills destroyed. The fish may behave like they have irritations, by glancing off aquarium decor, they may have clamped fins and difficulty breathing.

As acriflavine can sterilize fish, the water should be gradually changed after a cure has been effected. It also helps to raise the temperature to about 80° F. There seems to be no explainable rationale as to its cause of bloat.

Once a fish becomes afflicted it is often fatal. A fish that is not eating must be treated immediately or it can quickly become incurable and die. Though It is not certain what this disease is, it is generally believed to be caused by a protozoal parasite complicated by bacterial infection.

The Tropheus species from Lake Tanganyika are also very susceptible. The most common cause of this disease is stress and the first sign if illness is not eating.

Stress can be caused by such things as transport, netting, poor water quality, insufficient diet, over feeding, and a lack of hiding places. Other causes, that are easily remedied, are an improper diet and adding too much salt to the water. Prevention is of utmost importance, and It is possibly to cure a fish if treated right away.

Metronidazol is considered the most reliable cure and some use Clout as another cure, but do not use them together. The fish louse is a flattened mite-like crustacean about 5 mm long that attaches itself to the body of fish.

They irritate the host fish which may have clamped fins, become restless, and may show inflamed areas where the lice have been. With larger fish and light infestations, the lice can be picked off with a pair of forceps.

Other cases can best be done with a 10 to 30 minute bath in 10 mg per liter of potassium permanganate. Or treat the whole tank with 2 mg per liter, but this method is messy and dyes the water. Anchor worms are actually crustaceans. The young are free swimming and borrow into the skin, go into the muscles and develop for several months before showing.

They release eggs and die. The holes left behind are ugly and may become infected. The anchor worm is too deeply imbedded to safely remove. Treatment can best be done with a 10 to 30 minute bath in 10 mg per liter of potassium permanganate.

Black Spot — Black Ick diplopstomiasis Symptoms: The fish, very irritated, scrapes itself against objects, appears as small black specks or smudges on the body and around the mouth, and if heavily infected may experience blood loss.

Black Spot or Black Ick is rare in aquariums. It is generally seen in outdoor ponds, especially those with mud bottoms, but it can be introduced when adding new fish into the aquarium. Fish that are most readily susceptible are the Silver Dollar, Piranha, or other fish of these types.

In general it does relatively little damage to the fish, even if they are heavily infested. The disease is caused by a parasite larval trematode that burrows into the skin of a fish where it forms a cyst that is about one millimeter in diameter.

It has a complex lifecyle that in order to survive, requires fish eating birds or animals, snails, or fish at different stages infected with the disease. Black Spot is generally easy to cure.

Either treat with salt baths or there are a number of commercially available treatments and preventatives. This parasite is like the anchor worm, but is smaller and attacks the gills instead of the skin.

Flukes Symptoms: The fish scrapes itself against objects, rapid gill movement, mucus covering the gills or body, the gills or fins may be eaten away, the skin may become reddened. There are many species of flukes, which are flatworms about 1 mm long, and several symptoms that are visible.

They infest gills and skin much like ich, but the difference can be seen with a hand lens. You should be able to see movement and possibly eye spots, which is not found in ich. Gill flukes will eventually destroy the gills thus killing the fish.

Nematoda Symptoms: Worms hanging from the anus. Nematodes threadworms infect just about anywhere in the body but only shows itself when they hang out of the anus.

A heavy infestation causes hollow bellies. Lighter infestations usually cause no problems with the fish. Short of destroying the fish, which is easier, two treatments have been suggested.

First treatment; soak the food in parachlorometaxylenol and give the fish a bath or treat the aquarium with 10 ml per liter. The bath should last for several days.

Second treatment; find special food containing thiabendazole as a nematode threadworm cure and hope the fish will eat it. Leeches are external parasites and affix themselves on the body, fins, or gills of the fish.

Usually they appear as heart shaped worms they are just curled up attached to the fish. They are usually introduced to the aquarium via plants or snails. Since leeches are sucking and borrowing into the surface of the fish, removal with forceps can cause great damage, if not death, to the fish.

If the fish is bathed in a 2. Those that do not will be affected enough to remove with forceps with minimal damage. Another treatment is to add Trichlorofon at 0. Uronema marinum Symptoms: Skin scraping, pale discoloration, loss of color, weight loss, dehydration, flashing, and rapid breathing.

The saltwater parasite, Uronema marinum, is a free-living ciliated protozoa that can cause fatal infections in marine fish. This infestation is often the result of the introduction of a new fish, overcrowding, and poor water quality resulting from a high organic load in the aquarium.

This parasite is difficult to identify as the symptoms can also be indicative of other parasitic and bacterial problems. However, it can be debilitating and ultimately fatal to a variety of marine fish including Tangs, especially the Yellow Tang, Angelfish species especially those in the genus Centropyges, Seahorses, many species of Butterflyfish, yellow headed Jawfish, and others.

The best way to avoid the problem is to keep your current tank free from infestation. Quarantine all new fish for a period of three weeks, improve the water quality of the tank, and reduce the stress level in the aquarium by reducing the number of fish and incorporating places for fish to hide and rest.

Fungus Saprolegnia Symptoms: Tufts of dirty, cotton-like growth on the skin, can cover large areas of the fish, fish eggs turn white. Fungal attacks always follow some other health problem like parasitic attack, injury, or bacterial infection. Eventually, if left untreated, these growths will become cottony looking.

The fungus, if left untreated, will eventually eat away on the fish until it finally dies. Add 10 ml of this solution per liter of aquarium water.

Repeat after a few days if needed, but only once more as three treatments could be dangerous to aquarium inhabitants. If the symptoms are severe the fish can be removed from the aquarium and swabbed with a cloth that has been treated with small amounts of povidone iodine or mercurochrome.

Ichthyosporidium Symptoms: Sluggishness, loss of balance, hollow belly, external cysts and sores. Ichthyosporidium is a fungus, but it manifests itself internally.

It primarily attacks the liver and kidneys, but it spreads everywhere else. The symptoms vary. The fish may become sluggish, lose balance, show hollow bellies, and eventually show external cysts or sores.

By then it is usually too late for the fish. Treatment is difficult. Chloromycetin added to the food has also been effective. But both of these treatments, if not watched with caution, could pose a risk to your fish. It is best, if diagnosed soon enough, to destroy the affected fish before the disease can spread.

Head and Lateral Line Erosion Disease — Hole-in-the-Head Disease HLLD or HLLE Symptoms: Begins as small pits on the head and face, usually just above the eye.

If untreated, these turn into large cavities and then the disease progresses along the lateral line. Head and Lateral Line Disease is also known as Hole-in-the-Head Disease, Lateral Line Erosion LLE , and Lateral Line Disease LLD.

In saltwater fish it is occasionally referred to as Marine Head and Lateral Line Erosion MHLLE or Head and Lateral Line Erosion Syndrome HLLES. Though its cause is not definitively determined, a recent study was conducted by Jay Hemdal and reported in Coral Magazine in the spring of The focus of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the use of activated carbon in aquariums and the development of HLLES in surgeonfish.

From the results of the study, it has been suggested that HLLE is a result of activated carbon used in the aquarium. Fish from the study that developed HLLE were in two control groups, one group treated with unwashed lignin carbon and the other with pelletized carbon.

A third group of fishes were in a control group where no carbon was used, and they did not develop Head and Lateral Line Disease.

The study was conducted only on marine fishes. Not all species of fish show the same symptoms of the disease however, and they do not always develop lesions to the same degree. It has been suggested that in freshwater fishes the causes seem to be different, but that is not yet substantiated.

Previously Head and Lateral Line Disease was thought to be caused by a poor diet or lack of variety, a nutritional deficiency of one or more of: Vitamin C, Vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus; lack of partial water changes; or over filtration with chemical media such as activated carbon.

The best treatment suggestions at this time are to use a quarantine tank that offers a stress free environment with good quality water.

Provide a quality diet including vegetable foods, places to hide, and a quiet area for the aquarium. Hexamita is a protozoan disease that attacks the lower intestine. Eye Problems Symptoms: Cloudy cornea, opaque lens, pop eye, swelling, blindness. Swim-bladder Disease Symptoms: Abnormal swimming pattern, difficulty maintaining equilibrium.

Swim bladder problems usually indicate another problem listed here. If you suspect swim-bladder problems in a fish, first check and treat it for other diseases as listed below:.

If you have eliminated other causes, make sure you are feeding the right food and make sure the fish is not constipated. Give it live food for awhile to ensure it is getting enough roughage.

Physical Injuries Even in the best of aquariums under the supervision of the most astute aquarists, injuries occur. Some times a bully fish is the culprit, or sharp decor. Sometimes there appears to be no explanation. As in the human world, accidents happen. If the cause of the injury is obvious, it should be remedied.

Then the injury should be treated. Minor injuries, if the water conditions are good, should just heal themselves. Constipation Some fish are more susceptible to constipation than others.

Usually fish with more compressed bodies like angelfish and silver dollars. Symptoms are loss of appetite and swelling of the body. The cause is almost always diet. Usually, with a change of diet, the condition rights itself.

But in stubborn cases try dried food that has been soaked in medicinal paraffin oil. Glycerol or castor oil may also be used. If the diet is changed on a regular basis and live foods offered occasionally this condition may never occur. Tumors Tumors can be caused by a virus or a cancer, but most tumors are genetic.

The genetic tumors may be caused from too much hybridization, common amongst professional breeders. Practically all tumors are untreatable. If the fish is in distress, it should be destroyed. Congenital Abnormalities Abnormalities usually occur when professional breeders are trying to acquire certain strains in breeds.

Most are beneficial abnormalities like albinism or extra finnage. But undesirable abnormalities crop up and are usually culled out by the breeder. However, such abnormalities sometimes happen in the amateur aquarium. If the abnormality is not life-threatening or degrades the quality of life, just leave it be and brag to your friends about the unusual inhabitant.

Otherwise, the fish should be humanely destroyed. When the environment is not maintained correctly, or stress sets in, your fish can and will get sick.

Left unchecked, disease and parasites can affect the entire community. Even other tanks can be infected through the use of nets, your hands, glass-cleaning equipment and fish transfer. The most important time to keep an eye out for these ailments is before you even bring your fish home.

Inspect the fish you intend to purchase and look for symptoms. Here's an alphabetical listing of the most common issues and diseases that can affect fish and their environments:. New fish should be isolated in a separate tank for at least a week before adding them into your main tank.

This will give you time to make sure that your fish is healthy before introducing him to his new tank mates. If you find that the fish in your aquarium are exhibiting signs of illness, do not panic. There are plenty of medicines available to treat most, if not all disease problems.

If you do plan on using medicine, isolate the sick fish to avoid spreading the disease. The possibility of sickness is a fact of life for creatures great and small, but with a little vigilance and preparation you can protect your fish against potentially harmful diseases and parasites.

Bringing a reptile home can be stressful for both you and your pet. Vacations can be hard for reptile owners. Traveling with your reptile requires significant preparation and causes needless stress. It is best to leave him home. Many cat bites require medical attention and can quickly become infected if left untreated.

Pet guinea pigs are active, inquisitive animals that can make great companions. Understanding what their behavior means will help you build a closer relationship with your furry friend. Moving into a new aquarium tank can be stressful for a fish. Here are some tips on how to make a painless transfer.

The key to keeping your fish healthy and happy is knowing what they are saying with their behavior. Starting a Koi pond will take time, work, and money, but it can be very rewarding. Common Fish Ailments All living things, including your aquarium fish, are subject to disease organisms and parasites.

The fish and tank problem list The most important time to keep an eye out for these ailments is before you even bring your fish home. Here's an alphabetical listing of the most common issues and diseases that can affect fish and their environments: Ammonia poisoning. High levels of ammonia can buildup in your fish tank.

This often occurs when a tank is newly set up or when too many new fish are added at the same time. To prevent this from occurring, stock your tank slowly, do not overfeed, remove uneaten food, and change water regularly.

Test water frequently to catch problems like this early. A common bacterial infection, Columnaris presents as mold-like lesions on your fish. Poor water quality and inadequate diet are among the causes.

This disease is highly contagious and can spread from fish to fish and tank to tank. Medication is available for treatment. Your tank should undergo a complete cleaning to prevent re-infection. Fin Rot.

Fredhwater normal circumstances, your healthy fish can fight off many common diseases and parasites. When the environment is not maintained DDiseases, or stress Safe antifungal treatments in, Safe antifungal treatments fish can and will get sick. Left unchecked, disease and parasites can affect the entire community. Even other tanks can be infected through the use of nets, your hands, glass-cleaning equipment and fish transfer. The most important time to keep an eye out for these ailments is before you even bring your fish home. There are literally hundreds of afflictions Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide can Disesses the health Guids your fish. The most common maladies seen in Freshwater Fish Diseases Guide aquaria are Nutritional challenges for young athletes either bacterial or parasitic Diseasfs origin. Fungal infections are also sometimes seen, and occasionally physical ailments. Luckily, most fish ailments are easily diagnosed and can be treated with success. The most common of these afflictions are included here. How to prevent fish disease has steps you can take to reduce the possibility of disease and help to keep disease from spreading if it should occur.

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