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Fat-free tissue mass

Fat-free tissue mass

Perceived health was Far-free using the Mazs vertical visual Fat-free tissue mass scale FFat-free Maximal aerobic power Skin-quenching solutions Recharge Discounts and Deals and cycling in obese and non-obese children. Video of the Day. However, FFM includes non-skeletal muscle components such as the fat-free component of adipose tissue fat cells. In reasonable terms, if you eat more calories than your body burns, you will increase weight generally as fat.

Fat-free tissue mass -

However, FFM includes non-skeletal muscle components such as the fat-free component of adipose tissue fat cells. As the amount of adipose tissue mass increases, the FFM will also increase and be included in the measurement of FFM. Therefore, FFM may not be an appropriate indicator of muscle mass when targeting individuals with a large amount of body fat.

The lean body mass LBM has been described as an index superior to total body weight for prescribing proper levels of medications and for assessing metabolic disorders, as body fat is less relevant for metabolism.

LBW is used by anesthesiologists to dose certain medications. For example, due to the concern of postoperative opioid-induced ventilatory depression in the obese patient, opioids are best based on lean body weight. The induction dose of propofol should also be based on LBW.

LBM is usually estimated using mathematical formulas. Several formulas exist, having different utility for different purposes. For example, the Boer formula is method of choice for LBM estimation to calculate the dose given in contrast CT in obese individuals with BMI between 35 and A nomogram based on height, weight and arm circumference may be used.

The Boer formula is: [3]. The following formula by Hume may be used: [5]. Instead of mathematical estimation the actual value of LBM may be calculated using various technologies such as Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Relationships between fat mass index FM index and whole-body fat mass a , between fat-free soft tissue mass index FFSTM index and whole-body fat-free soft tissue mass b , and between fat-free mass index FFM index and whole-body fat-free mass c.

No significant differences were found between the regression slopes for the FFSTM- and FFM-BM relationships, between those for the FFSTMI- and FFMI-BM relationships, and between those for FFSTMI-FFSTM relationship and FFMI-FFM relationship. As expected, the regional FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships had BPs regardless of segments, and the BM BP differed among the arms, trunk, and legs in male athletes.

For the FM, the BM BP was greater in the trunk than in both limbs. For the FFSTM, the BM BP was smaller in the legs compared to the trunk and arms. These findings indicate that the BM-related differences in regional FM and FFSTM accumulation are region specific.

Furthermore, in the regional FM and FFSTM relationships, the regression slopes below and above the BM BP also differed among the segments. The segment-related difference in the regression slope allows us to understand the proportion of either FM or FFSTM to BM.

The BM BP s of the whole-body FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships FM, However, the BM BP in FFSTM-BM relationship was greater as compared to that observed in our previous study [ 9 ] which examined male athletes and untrained males Distribution of FM and FFSTM within a body has been shown to be influenced by training status and ethnicity [ 19 , 23 ].

Stewart et al. Furthermore, it has been reported that the proportion of FM and FFSTM to BM in Australian rugby players differs between the Caucasian and Polynesian, whereas no significant position-related differences are found between both ethnic groups [ 19 ]. In the whole-body FFSTM-BM relationship, the regression slopes below and above BM BP It indicates that the proportion of whole-body FFSTM to BM is smaller in the athletes with above BM BP than those with below BM BP.

One of the factors concerning the existence of a BP in whole-body FFSTM-BM relationship may be considered that the proportion of FM accumulation to BM alters before and after the BM BP. In fact, whole-body FMI-BM relationship had a BP, corresponding to Whole-body FFSTMI-BM relationship had no BP, indicating that the relationship was linear.

Furthermore, the FFSTMI-FFSTM relationship had a BP, corresponding to This implies that in male athletes, whole-body FFSTM relative to body height squared becomes higher if BM is over Taken together, it can be considered that the existence of the BP in whole-body FFSTM-BM relationship might be due to greater proportion of FM accumulation above a given BM.

As seen in Fig. Weight-classified athletes such as weightlifters and wrestlers are required to control their BM for adjusting to their own weight classes and to maximize skeletal muscle mass within the prescribed BM. Similarly, bodybuilders generally design their own training regimen to induce greater muscle hypertrophy.

In addition, the breakpoint found in this study has not been shown in the FFM-BM relationships for the bodybuilders [ 6 ] and the weight-classified athletes [ 7 ]. Combining the current findings with the earlier findings, it is considered that we can present the upper limit of FFM accumulation for a given BM in Japanese male athletes Fig.

In fact, the regression lines derived from the equations reported in the earlier studies overlapped with that obtained here below the BP Above the BM BP , however, the regression slope for the athletes examined here 0. Taken together, it may be assumed that in Japanese male athletes with less than In the regional FFSTM-BM relationships, the BPs were found regardless of segments, and the BM BP differed among segments.

The BM BP was greater in arms This suggests that as compared to trunk and legs, arms can store FFSTM to a greater extent of BM without change in its proportion to BM. Site-specific difference in the relationship between individual muscle size and whole-body FFM might be involved as a physiological mechanism yielding segment-related difference in the BP in the regional FFSTM-BM relationships.

Kondo et al. This indicates that thigh muscles may not accumulate in a body beyond a given FFM. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined how muscle size of segments other than thigh can be associated with either BM or FFM. If the earlier findings on the thigh muscles can be applied to other individual muscles, it would be a reason for the nonlinear relationship between regional FFSTMs and BM in this study.

In the regional FM-BM relationships, there were also region-related differences in the BM BP arms, Contrary to FFSTM, the regression slopes above the BM BP became steeper than those below the BM BP in all segments.

The slopes above the BM BP were greater in arms 0. Nindl et al. Rognum et al. These findings indicate that deposition and lipolytic action differ among trunk and limbs.

Taken together, it can be said that the observed region-related differences in the breakpoints of regional FM-BM relationships may be attributable to those in the susceptibility to fat tissue accumulation in the corresponding segments.

The present study has some limitations to discuss FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships in male athletes. Firstly, the maximal value of BM for the athletes examined here was Bosch et al.

Therefore, there is a possibility that the BM BP obtained here might alter if heavier athletes are examined. As mentioned above, however, the relationship between individual muscle size and BM or FFM is nonlinear, indicating that the ratios of thigh muscle CSA to FFM, and the ratio of skeletal muscle mass to BM may be nearly constant in spite of the magnitude of FFM and BM, respectively [ 6 , 10 ].

These findings will deny the possibility that the BM BP obtained here might alter if heavier athletes are examined. Secondly, there is a possibility that the BM BP obtained in this study might depend on the type of the examined events.

In further analysis, judo athletes and throwers showed greater FM and FFSTM, compared to runners and gymnasts Suppl. In addition, the proportion of FM to BM was higher in the heavier athletes than the lighter athletes. Thus, we cannot rule out that the BM BP might be affected by the type of athletic events.

Further investigation is needed to clarify this point. Thirdly, FFSTM involves not only skeletal muscle mass but also other organ-tissue mass. The regression slopes of the FFSTM-BM relationship would be potentially influenced by inter-individual differences in the other organ-tissue mass.

Midorikawa et al. This finding suggests that the whole-body and trunk FFSTM-BM relationships proposed here might involve more or less the influence of the mass of organ tissues such as the kidney and liver.

This study demonstrates that for male athletes, an increase in BM leads to gains in both FM and FFSTM. The rate of increase in FFSTMI was higher above the BP, compared to that below the BP. This indicates that the male athletes with FFSTM above BP may have greater FFSTM relative to body size, compared to ones with FFSTM below BP.

Taken together, the current findings suggest that the heavier male athletes with a BM above BP need to increase fat-free tissue mass and to decrease fat tissue mass, compared to the lighter ones with a BM below BP.

In particular, the prescription may focus on legs and trunk fat-free tissue masses because of the lower proportion of fat-free tissue accumulation in the legs and trunk segment for the heavier male athletes. So the BM BP obtained in this study may be useful information for male athletes and their coaches to design a weight management program, including physical exercises, for increasing FFSTM within a given BM.

This study demonstrates that whole-body and regional FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships for male athletes have breakpoints at which the proportion of FM and FFSTM accumulation to BM alters. The magnitude of BM at the breakpoint and the change in the proportion around the breakpoint are region specific.

On the other hand, the physiological mechanisms for the region-related difference in BM BP and the plasticity of FM and FFSTM e. Further investigations are needed to enhance understanding of the plasticity of FM and FFSTM for a given BM for male athletes.

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Fat-free tissue mass body mass LBMsometimes conflated with fat-free massis Nutrient-rich foods component of body composition. Fat-free mass FFM is calculated by subtracting body fat masz from total tisssue weight : Tisshe body weight is lean plus fat. In equations:. The lean body mass LBM has been described as an index superior to total body weight for prescribing proper levels of medications and for assessing metabolic disorders, as body fat is less relevant for metabolism. LBW is used by anesthesiologists to dose certain medications. For example, due to the concern of postoperative opioid-induced ventilatory depression in the obese patient, opioids are best based on lean body weight.

Fat-free tissue mass -

Therefore, FFM may not be an appropriate indicator of muscle mass when targeting individuals with a large amount of body fat. This review aimed 1 to examine the fat-free adipose tissue FFAT in adolescents with and without obesity and 2 to investigate the impact of FFAT on peak oxygen uptake V O 2peak by comparing V O 2peak expressed relative to FFM and FFM minus FFAT between adolescents with and without obesity.

The V O 2peak expressed relative to FFM-FFAT was similar between the two groups When normalizing V O 2peak by FFM, eliminating the FFAT component from FFM may be needed, especially when comparing groups with different body fat mass.

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Body-size dependence of resting energy expenditure can be attributed to nonenergetic homogeneity of fat-free mass.

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Hispanic adolescents. PubMed Google Scholar. It is important to realize the two terms do not mean the same thing, and the figure below demonstrates the difference between them. Lean soft tissue is the sum of body water, total body protein, carbohydrates, non-fat lipids and soft tissue mineral Prado and Heymsfield Conversely, fat-free mass includes bone as well as skeletal muscle, organs, and connective tissue Prado and Heymsfield The main difference between the two centers on how bone mass is handled.

If bone mass or bone density cannot be measured it has to be calculated with the skeletal muscle mass and you have fat-free mass. On the other hand, if you can measure bone mass or bone density you can separate it out from skeletal mass and you now have lean soft tissue and bone mass.

Therefore, the use of the term fat-free mass or lean soft tissue is ultimately dependent upon the methodology used to measure skeletal muscle. Determination of body composition using a 2-component model e. Figure divides the body into either fat mass or fat-free mass.

On the other hand, determining body composition using a 3-component model e. The term fat-free mass and lean soft tissue also indicate to some extent the accuracy of the measurement of skeletal muscle mass.

The flaws in these assumptions explain the inaccuracy of the 2-component model since the inclusion of bone mass with lean soft tissue leads to an overestimation of skeletal muscle mass, and the density of these two components can differ in regions of the body.

In addition, there is a progressive loss of bone mineral with aging that leads to a decrease in body density over time Shephard, , making the use of a 2-component model less accurate in populations that may have different body densities than the normal population i.

Several methods are available to measure skeletal muscle mass using a 2-component model, ranging from simple, inexpensive field methods e.

to more complicated and expensive laboratory methods e. DXA, which measures bone density, is the most common 3-component method of measuring body composition. By measuring bone density, DXA is able to eliminate the assumptions that 2-component methods make regarding bone density.

This ultimately improves the accuracy of the DXA especially in athletic and older populations whose bone density varies from the bone density in the average population. Since the bone mass is being measured we are able to subtract it from fat-free mass and are now left with lean soft tissue.

The bottom line is one can be correct in using the term fat-free mass or lean soft tissue, but only in the context of knowing which method was used to measure skeletal muscle.

Fa-tfree of Physiological Anthropology volume 39Article Fat-free 5 Cite this Recharge Discounts and Deals. Metrics details. It is unclear whether or Age-specific water intake for athletes the breakpoint Tissudat which the Fwt-free Fat-free tissue mass each of Fat-free tissue mass FFat-free FM and fat-free soft tissue mass FFSTM to body mass BM alter, exists in male athletes. We examined the hypothesis that in male athletes, the regional FM and FFSTM-BM relationships have a BP, but the body mass at BP BM BP differs among the arms, trunk, and legs. By using a dual X-ray absorptiometry, whole-body and regional FMs and FFSTMs in the arms, trunk, and legs were estimated in male athletes To detect the BP in the relationship between each of FM and FFSTM and BM, a piecewise linear regression analysis was used. Rachel Green tea for blood pressure control is a health writer, certified personal trainer, certified strength and conditioning Recharge Discounts and Deals, and exercise aFt-free coach based in Halifax. Tisse Shah, MD, is masw board-certified internist, interventional cardiologist, and fellow Fatf-ree the American College of Cardiology. Fat-free mass is one of two human body components: Fat, and everything else. Fat-free mass FFM is that "everything else," from organs, to water to connective tissue. The term "body composition" describes the ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass, and it can be measured using a few different methods. When you get your body composition measured, you get an estimate of your body's fat mass. Fat-free tissue mass

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