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Antioxidant role in inflammation

Antioxidant role in inflammation

Its anti-inflammatory inflammqtion involve modulating the NF-κB Anyioxidant MAPK signaling pathways, reducing the release of on Low GI lunch and Creatine and anaerobic performance reverse cholesterol transport by HDL, thereby Maple glazed sweet potatoes the kn of cholesterol in foam cells and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Liu T, Zhang L, Joo D, Sun SC NF-κB signaling in inflammation. Check out the Dietetics B. Science — Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar Liberman TA and Baltimore D Activation of interleukin-6 gene expression through the NFkB transcription factor. are classified as anti-inflammatories.

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Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants - Type 2 Diabetes Education.

Antioxidant role in inflammation -

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In addition, TPCD nanoparticles could effectively inhibit foam cell formation in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells VSMCs , by decreasing cellular internalization of oxLDL. After i. administration efficaciously inhibited the development of atherosclerosis and stabilized atherosclerotic plaques, resulting less cholesterol crystals, smaller necrotic cores, thicker fibrous caps, and lower levels of macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9, as compared to control drugs previously developed for antiatherosclerosis.

These beneficial effects of TPCD nanoparticles were considered to be relevant to reduced systemic and local oxidative stress and inflammation. In view of the good safety profile of TPCD nanoparticles in preliminary in vivo tests based on different animal models Li et al.

In another study, Hao et al. developed injectable fullerenol nanoparticle-loaded alginate hydrogel, which showed excellent ROS-scavenging activity Hao et al. Moreover, this functional hydrogel remarkably enhanced the retention and survival of implanted BADSCs in myocardial infarction zone via regulating the ROS microenvironment, thereby reinforcing therapeutic efficacy for cardiac repair.

On the other hand, ROS-scavenging nanoparticles can serve as an effective nanoplatform for site-specific delivery of therapeutics to the sites of vascular inflammation Seshadri et al. As well-documented, substantially increased ROS levels are positively related to endothelial dysfunction and pathogenesis of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions Juni et al.

To develop targeting nanotherapies for restenosis, our group engineered ROS-responsive nanotherapies by loading rapamycin RAP into nanoparticles derived from a PBAP-conjugated β-CD material Figure 6 Feng et al.

Thus, obtained RAP-containing nanoparticles exhibited ROS-triggerable drug release, showing significantly enhanced anti-migration and anti-proliferative effects as compared to free RAP and a non-responsive RAP nanotherapy.

In addition, the ROS-responsive nanoparticles can accumulate at the injured site in the carotid artery of rats subjected to balloon angioplasty injury. In a rat model of arterial restenosis, treatment with the ROS-responsive RAP nanotherapy by i.

injection more effectively attenuated neointimal hyperplasia than free RAP and a non-responsive nanotherapy. In both cases, treatment with ROS-responsive nanotherapies can significantly reduce oxidative stress in diseased aortas. Consequently, ROS-responsive nanotherapies hold great potential for precision therapy of different vascular inflammatory diseases.

Figure 6. Engineering of different inflammation-responsive nanotherapies for targeted treatment of restenosis. A Design of inflammation-triggerable nanoparticles. B Evans Blue staining indicates successful establishment of injury in the carotid artery.

C DHE-stained cryosections showing oxidative stress in injured carotid arteries. The image at day 0 was acquired from the sample immediately collected after injury.

D The levels of hydrogen peroxide in the carotid artery with or without injury. Scale bars, μm the upper panel , 50 μm the lower panel. PLGA NP, Ac-bCD NP, and Ox-bCD NP represents nanoparticles based on a non-responsive polymer PLGA, a pH-responsive material of acetelated β-CD, and a ROS-responsive material of PBAP-conjugated β-CD, respectively.

Reproduced with permission from Feng et al. Brain is an extremely metabolically active organ with low levels of antioxidant enzymes and high levels of redox-active substrates e. A growing body of evidence has substantiated that the excessive production of ROS plays a critical role in a common pathophysiology of brain diseases, such as cerebral infarction, Alzheimer's disease AD , and Parkinson's disease PD Barnham et al.

Conventional antioxidant therapies cannot effectively inhibit ROS-amplified brain injury for their limited ability to cross the BBB and target the disease sites. Antioxidant nanotherapies have been emerging as an effective strategy to overcome the BBB and to provide targeted release of different therapeutics in the impaired brain Hu et al.

For example, Liu et al. fabricated PEG-coated melanin nanoparticles MeNPs Liu et al. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of MeNPs were evaluated by in vitro studies in Neuro 2A cells.

It was found that MeNPs could decrease oxidative stress damage and inhibit CoCl 2 -induced ischemic injury, without notable effects on mitochondrial function.

Consequently, MeNPs could attenuate RONS-induced inflammatory responses through suppressing the expression of typical mediators related to oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

In addition, ROS-scavenging inorganic nanoparticles were used for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this aspect, Kwon and coworkers constructed triphenylphosphonium TPP -conjugated CeO 2 nanoparticles, for targeting the mitochondria and potential therapy of AD Kwon et al.

Such nanoparticles significantly mitigated reactive gliosis and mitochondrial morphological damage in an AD model of 5XFAD transgenic mice. In a recent study, the same group designed three different types of ceria nanoparticles, i. Therapeutic effects of three ceria nanoparticles were compared in mice with 1-methylphenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine MPTP -induced PD.

Mice treated with either ceria nanoparticles or TPP-ceria nanoparticles exhibited significantly higher levels of tyrosine hydroxylase a hallmark of PD and lower levels of lipid peroxidation, compared to those treated with cluster-ceria nanoparticles.

Asthma is a chronic pulmonary disease, characterized by recurrent airflow limitation, airway remodeling, and airway hyperreactivity. Inhaling corticosteroids is the most common treatment for asthma.

However, adverse effects associated with the frequent steroid administration precipitate the need for alternative therapeutics or novel delivery routes Vij, ; Lim et al.

Oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Growing evidence has indicated that nanoparticle-based anti-inflammation and antioxidant strategies are promising for the treatment of allergic airway inflammation and asthma Fatani, ; Sahiner et al.

The anti-asthmatic effects of two organic nanoparticles, i. Both of them could reduce the recruitment of inflammatory cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines, thus may be used as potential nanotherapies for asthma.

On the other hand, corticosteroids encapsulated in organic nanoparticles afforded more sustained therapeutic effects than free drugs. For example, a biodegradable polymer PVAX was modified to prepare dexamethasone DEX -loaded porous PVAX microparticles by a double emulsion method Jeong et al.

PVAX microparticles themselves remarkably reduced oxidative stress and down-regulated the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and iNOS. Notably, therapeutic effects of DEX-loaded porous PVAX microparticles were much better than PVAX microparticles alone, indicating a significant synergistic effect.

Acute lung injury ALI , a heterogeneous pulmonary disease with the severe manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome, continues to cause high morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients Rubenfeld et al.

ALI is closely related to the systemic inflammatory response and the increased cellular ROS Chabot et al. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were found able to reduce oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo Arvapalli et al.

They also exhibited protective effects against sepsis-induced ALI and radiation-induced lung injury. In mice with paraquat-induced ALI, the levels of ROS, malondialdehyde, NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-1β were significantly reduced by porous Se SiO 2 nanospheres that contain Se to scavenge intracellular free radicals Zhu et al.

In addition, intrinsically bioactive nanoparticles derived from functional cyclodextrin materials TPCD and LCD that were developed by our group, were able to accumulate in the injured lungs, suppress oxidative stress, and significantly reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells in a mouse model of ALI Figures 3C—H Li et al.

Consequently, both inorganic and organic ROS-scavenging nanoparticles can serve as a potent remedy for the treatment of ALI. Recently, different antioxidant nanotherapies have been applied in the treatment of peritonitis, an inflammation of the peritoneum.

PEGylated liposomes showed the most significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in this case. Accontaining nanoparticles, developed using an anti-inflammatory peptide Ac as well as diblock copolymers PLGA-PEG and collagen IV-targeting PLGA-PEG, could significantly inhibit the recruitment of polymononuclear neutrophils in a zymosan-induced peritonitis model Kamaly et al.

Our group developed H 2 O 2 -eliminating nanoparticles, based on PBAP-conjugated β-CD materials, also displayed desirable therapeutic effects in mice with peritonitis, by reducing ROS production, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and neutrophil-induced macrophage recruitment, as well as down-regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines Zhang et al.

Oxidative stress is at the basis of a variety of inflammatory pathologies, and therefore antioxidant nanotherapies have been extensively investigated as a new therapeutic strategy. Significant advances have been achieved in the field of antioxidant nanotherapies for different inflammatory diseases, in which ROS-scavenging inorganic nanoparticles, organic nanoparticles with intrinsic antioxidant activity, and drug-loaded nanoparticles with antioxidant activity are generally used.

Indeed, extensive preclinical studies have demonstrated desirable performances of ROS-scavenging nanotherapies in different in vitro and in vivo inflammatory models. However, for the currently developed antioxidant nanotherapies, only a few of them have been intensively and systemically examined in diverse animal models.

Even few translation studies have been conducted for antioxidant nanotherapies thus far. There are still some critical challenges need to be addressed for further clinical translation of these anti-inflammatory nanotherapies. First, synthesis processes for currently developed antioxidant nanoparticles need to be optimized to produce nanotherapies with good quality control, such as highly defined structures and physicochemical characters as well as good batch-to-batch reproducibility, from the view point of preparation.

The cost-efficient mass production is also a critical factor that should be carefully considered according to the benefits of different antioxidant nanoparticles and their potential applications in clinical practice.

Second, both acute and long-term chronic toxicities of various antioxidant nanotherapies must be comprehensively tested, particularly for ROS-scavenging inorganic nanoparticles.

The physicochemical and biological properties of nanoparticles greatly influence their interactions with the living organisms. The developed antioxidant nanotherapies or nanocarriers should be biocompatible and easy to clear by the body.

Thirdly, the ROS level varies among different inflammatory disorders as well as throughout the different stages of the same inflammatory disease, which largely decide the dose and dosing frequency of antioxidant nanotherapies.

The appropriate dose should control the intracellular ROS toward the beneficial therapeutic effects without causing pathological ones.

These issues unfortunately remain elusive. Also, a thorough assessment of risks and benefits of antioxidative nanoparticles is a main ethical issue.

The ideal antioxidative nanoparticles should maximize the well-being of patients and reduce or avoid therapy-induced side effects, thereby affording patients with the benefits outweighing the risks. With the aforementioned challenges to be resolved, we are confident that the clinical applications of antioxidant nanotherapies for the treatment of inflammatory diseases will be realize in the foreseeable future, resulting in improved safety and individualized healthcare.

C-WL and L-LL drafted the manuscript. C-WL, L-LL, and SC created the tables and figures and performed literature searches.

J-XZ and W-LL revised the manuscript and edited the final draft. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Low GI lunch for Antixidant a few words should Maple glazed sweet potatoes enough Antioxidwnt get started. Inflamamtion you need to make more complex Antioxidant role in inflammation, use the tips below to guide you. There are an Fuel Management Software 47 million people globally who have Ajtioxidant diagnosed with AD dementia, and researchers inflzmmation yet to figure out the root cause. It is that oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and, in conjunction with amyloid protein and tau hyperphosphorylation, progresses to and exacerbates AD. The consumption of antioxidants and nutrients, specifically vitamin E, caffeine, and turmeric, may slow the progression of AD and can be found in a wide variety of dietary foods. This review explores the role of inflammation on AD, the antioxidants that can potentially combat it, and future directions of how the treatment of the disease can be better understood. Antioxidant role in inflammation

Author: Kigazshura

3 thoughts on “Antioxidant role in inflammation

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